Aspiration pneumonia: symptoms, causes, diagnosis and

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Pneumonia per suction is the type of pneumonia caused by the infiltration of random food or other substances from the mouth or stomach in the lungs.The condition can be caused by bacteria that generally live in the mouth or nasal passages or launches noncommunicable toxins that damage the tissue of the lungs.

The X-rays of the chest and other tests can help differentiate the pneumonia from the aspiration of other types of pneumonia .Bacterial infections are treated with antibiotics, while chemical pneumonia may require steroids and non-steroidal preparations to reduce inflammation.

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Symptoms

Symptoms of pneumonia by aspiration essentially the same as any other type fromPneumonia, it is clinically difficult to make it differentiate it. The same applies to the differences between pneumonia by aspiration and chemical pneumonia with several notable differences.

The most common symptoms of suction pneumonia include:

  • chest pain
  • lack of breath ( dyspnea ) li>
  • wheezing
  • fever
  • cough,Sometimes with yellow or greenish humid (saliva and mucus)
  • fatigue
  • swallowing hard (dysphagia)
  • abundant sweating
  • bad breath
  • blue blue color ( cianosis ),Cut out low oxygen in the blood

, if the solution was caused by a toxic substance, it can also be oral burns or nasal, swollen tongue or throat, the hoarse voice,The heartbeat of the fast heart ( Tachycardia ) was changed the mental state and other signs of poisoning.

Complications

SUPPLY pneumonia can sometimes lead to seriously and potentially free of life complications, if they are not treated, including:

  • efficiency of parapneemoneist,What is the accumulation of fluid at the bottom of the lungs
  • Empyema , a pus collection in the lungs
  • lung, pus-Full cavity in the lung
  • suprainfection, the growth of secondary infection even after the first was treated
  • broncopleural svischestvu ,An abnormal hole between the lung lungs and the space (pleural cavity)

if it is not processed aggressively and timely, the complications of the aspiration of pneumonia can Drive to insufficient breathing and death.

Conditions, such as bronchiporal fistula, do not transfer somewhere from 18 percent to 67 percent of the risk of death, according to the study The University Hospital of the North Coast on Long Island.It is important to seek medical attention when necessary.

Call

The aspiration of pneumonia is characterized by failure of the physiological mechanisms that prevent food and other substances in the trachea (trachea) and lungs.The aspiration (application) of these substances can cause inflammation, infection or obstruction of the respiratory tract. Most episodes cause temporary symptoms of pneumonite (inflammation of the airbag of lungs) without infection or obstacles.

Subtype of pneumonia by aspiration, known as chemical pneumonia, includes the introduction of gastric acid or other non-communicable toxins in light , which directly damage the tissue of the respiratory tract.

Healthy people generally aspire small amounts of food products and other substances in the lungs, but the natural reflections of the body (smoothing, cough) are usually cleaned from them without difficulty.The problems arise only if large quantities or a violation of the lungs or the nervous system weakens these technological reflexes.

Many cases of pneumonia by aspiration are associated with a neurological state, or an episode of a disturbance of consciousness that disconnects this reflection.

Examples of conditions that would worsen this reflection and potentially lead to suction pneumonia include:

  • Neurological conditions, such as stroke, The Parkinson disease,Alzheimer’s disease disease, sclerosis, cerebral palsy, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), Miasenia Gravis and brain injury injury for which dysphagia (difficulties behaving) is characteristic of
  • vomiting,During which heavy cramps can allow food to escape from the esophagus (feeding the tube) in the trachea
  • alcohol, sedatives or illegal drugs,What can change your level of awareness and disable the normal gag cramps
  • , in which involuntary spasms can promote aspiration
  • general anesthesia
  • .and endotracheal tubes , which provide the finished form of accessing the lungs from the stomach
  • Gastroesophageal reflux disease (Gard),characterized by acid reflux and the highest risk of chemical pneumonia
  • acalasia / a> esopapageal engine disorder
  • throat cancer
  • unfortunately drowning

with chemical pneumonia, Gastric acid is the most common cause, although toxic gases (for example, chlorine gas), couples (as a smoke incineration and pesticides), air particles (as chemical fertilizer),And liquids can also penetrate the trachea and cause inflammation of the lungs.Even certain laxing oils used to treat constipation (such as mineral oil or castor oil) cause the case of chemical pneumonia if accidentally inhaled.

How does pneumonia

arise

Aspiration pneumonia is more common in the elderly by conditions that change consciousness (as sedatives),Along with an increased risk of Alzheimers and other researchers, associated neurological disorders.

In addition to age, other risk factors include:

  • Poor oral hygiene,Assistance to bacterial colonization in the mouth
  • a
  • linked the immune system

  • hospitalization and / or long-term mechanical breathing
  • damaged pulmonary tissues for smoking,COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease),Or other reasons
  • long or non-use target antipsychotic drugs
  • long use of proton pump inhibitors and inhibitors of your
  • Radiotherapy for head and neck
  • alcoholismoPsychoactive psychoactive substances
  • malnutrition
  • diabetes

Diagnosis

Si-aspiĆ³n pneumonia often promotes symptoms soon develop shortly afterDeposition of events, such as severe vomiting, the impact of general anesthesia or industrial or tonic pairs are complicated . Sometimes, reason can be unknown, which makes the differentiation of diagnosis quite difficult.

Typical causes of pneumonia are influenza A, B, avian influenza viruses or Streptococcus bacteria (found infections in most infections Community-based pneumonia).If none of them can not be found, suction pneumonia can be studied as a cause using physical examination and various laboratory studies and testing.

Physical examination

One of the first health care providers is looking for In to investigate suction pneumonia is a sudden appearance of fever and respiratory problems after an aspiration event.They will also look for the sounds characteristic of breathing in a stethoscope, such as the crackling sounds (<> crepitus ) in certain areas of light. The breathing that smells impossibly is also common (and otherwise does not characteristic in ‘regular’ pneumonia).

chronic, often caused by Gard (reflux reflux of the gas element) or acalasia ,It can be confirmed by the appearance of wet cough immediately after eating failure

Study of the image

The chest x-ray can usually provide pressure of evidence of theAspiration pneumonia. For example, if suction is suspected when a person was unconscious or in the genre of capture, there may be a liquid consolidation on the back of the upper lung.

If the aspiration occurred on foot or seat, consolidation usually occurs on both sides of the lower part.

When considering the X-ray reward of the chest, the health care provider will look for white spots on the lungs (called infiltrates), which determine the infection.

With suction pneumonia, there will often be an area of density in an X-ray beam, where the infiltrates are grouped around the area of obstruction. With ‘regular’ pneumonia, consolidation will be determined, but it appears more envelopeously.

A Tomography Calculated (CT) Contrast scan Contrast failure

Laboratory tests

,When a physical examination and an x-ray can provide all the evidence-cooked for the final diagnosis of pneumonia aspiration, laboratory tests can be ordered to support diagnoses.This is especially true when it comes to differentiating pneumonia by aspiration and chemical pneumonia from other possible reasons. In general terms, blood tests have similar results, whether the condition of infection or inflammatory.In both copies of , the number of white blood cells (WBC) will invariably lead to an increase that will lead to leukocytosis.

The culture of the bridge can be ordered, but it is also problematic as the contamination of other pathogens in the mouth (bacteria, viruses and fungi) are common.Although sometimes the culture of blood is ordered , suction pneumonia is generally diagnosed and refers to the results of the results.It will be done

the test called O2 saturation (SAO) to measure the amount of oxygen in your blood, mainly to evaluate the strong pneumonia.In general, a Bronchoscopy can be requested (insertion of flexible areas in the trachea passages and the respiratory tract) if the particle is especially large, or to obtain a sample of lung tissue for analysis in the laboratory.

Differential diagnosis

Types of pneumonia can be difficult to distinguish because all They similar.Aspiration pneumonia is unique, since it can include aerobic bacteria (including associated with other types of pneumonia), as well as anaerobic bacteria, who live naturally in the mouth, nose and throat (but not the lungs).

For the differentiation of possible causes, health care providers will seek the definition of functions that characterize several types of pneumonia and study other lung disorders with similar symptoms.These include:

Treatment

Antibiotics are commonly used to treat suction pneumonia. Even if reason is neurological or chemical, the course of antibiotics will be prescribed.This is due to the fact that it is often difficult to exclude a bacterial infection as a basic or contributing cause.

Width-spectrum antibiotics, which are treated with several bacterial strains, are used standard and may include clindamycin, moxifloxacin, an inquisition (ampicillin / sulbactam), measurement (meropenem) and invantant (ertapenem) .

A typical course can last from a week to two weeks.

When preferably prescribed, the antibiotic can be stopped after three to four days if there are no penetration signs in the chest x-ray.Regardless of the severity of their condition, it must take its antibiotics, as prescribed, without losing the dose, even if the symptoms disappear.

The missing dose or a treatment stop prematurely allows the antibiotic strains.If this happens, it will be much harder to treat a bacterial infection in the future.

The auxiliary measures of the service may include mechanical ventilation with additional oxygen for respiratory assistance.If there is liquid in the lungs, a procedure called ToroCentsis can be performed. This includes an insertion of the needle through the pectoral wall to merge the accumulated liquid from the pleural space.

Prevention

If you are at risk of pneumonia, there are things you can do to reduce your risk. Preventive tips Useful include avoiding calm drugs and alcohol, if you have chronic dysphagia and / or reflux.This is especially true before bedtime, since aspiration usually occurs during the fall asleep.If you have chronic dysphagia and / or reflux, lift your head 30 degrees during sleep, to avoid the reverse current of the stomach content in the main capacity.

For people with chronic dysphagia, it can recommend the Diet dysphagia.Depending on the severity, you can recommend eating clean products that do not require chewing (level 1), soft and wet products that require small chewing products (level 2) or soft and non-crispy products that require chewing (level 3).

More useful preventive tips include:

  • Working with a pathologist of the speech pathologist to strengthen the muscles and systems required for careers .
  • Following the instructions of the medical care of the provider to prevent desire during surgery or any medical procedure with the participation of general anesthesia.
  • Keep good oral hygiene hygiene to prevent the infiltration of bacteria from the mouth in the trachea and lungs.

Word of the medications received

, If necessary, processed, the aspiration of pneumonia will generally respond well to medications and support assistance.Although the risk of death with non-complicated aspiration pneumonia is approximately 5 percent, whose risk can increase significantly if the treatment is delayed.

Vercertified medical care immediately, if you develop a sudden sibilancium, difficulty breathing, chest pain, fever, cough or difficulty difficulties.The lack of nasal symptoms must inform you that it is not the flu with which you treat, but a potentially serious respiratory infection.

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