References from scientific journals

Pharmacologic Treatment of Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder.

Cortese S. Cortese S. N Engl J Med. 2020 Sep 10;383(11):1050-1056. doi: 10.1056/NEJMra1917069. N Engl J Med. 2020. PMID: 32905677 Review. No abstract available.


Autism spectrum disorder: Consensus guidelines on assessment, treatment and research from the British Association for Psychopharmacology.

Howes OD, Rogdaki M, Findon JL, Wichers RH, Charman T, King BH, Loth E, McAlonan GM, McCracken JT, Parr JR, Povey C, Santosh P, Wallace S, Simonoff E, Murphy DG. Howes OD, et al. J Psychopharmacol. 2018 Jan;32(1):3-29. doi: 10.1177/0269881117741766. Epub 2017 Dec 14. J Psychopharmacol. 2018. PMID: 29237331 Free PMC article. Review.

In children, melatonin may be useful to treat sleep problems, dopamine blockers for irritability, and methylphenidate, atomoxetine and guanfacine for attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. ...
In children, melatonin may be useful to treat sleep problems, dopamine blockers for irritability, and methylphenidate, atomoxetine an …

Clinical practice: Adult attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder.

Volkow ND, Swanson JM. Volkow ND, et al. N Engl J Med. 2013 Nov 14;369(20):1935-44. doi: 10.1056/NEJMcp1212625. N Engl J Med. 2013. PMID: 24224626 Free PMC article. Review.

Short-term trials involving adults with ADHD have shown significant improvements in symptoms with stimulants and atomoxetine; however, data on long-term benefits and risks of these medications, particularly among older persons, have been insufficient....
Short-term trials involving adults with ADHD have shown significant improvements in symptoms with stimulants and atomoxetine; however …

Atomoxetine: A Review of Its Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacogenomics Relative to Drug Disposition.

Yu G, Li GF, Markowitz JS. Yu G, et al. J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol. 2016 May;26(4):314-26. doi: 10.1089/cap.2015.0137. Epub 2016 Feb 9. J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol. 2016. PMID: 26859445 Free PMC article. Review.

These differences can be substantial, resulting in 8-10-fold differences in atomoxetine exposure between CYP2D6 poor metabolizers and extensive metabolizers. ...The present review focuses on atomoxetine metabolism, disposition, and genetic polymorphisms of CYP2D6 as …
These differences can be substantial, resulting in 8-10-fold differences in atomoxetine exposure between CYP2D6 poor metabolizers and …

Systematic review and exploratory meta-analysis of the efficacy, safety, and biological effects of psychostimulants and atomoxetine in patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder.

Solmi M, Fornaro M, Toyoshima K, Carvalho AF, Köhler CA, Veronese N, Stubbs B, de Bartolomeis A, Correll CU. Solmi M, et al. CNS Spectr. 2019 Oct;24(5):479-495. doi: 10.1017/S1092852918001050. CNS Spectr. 2019. PMID: 30460884

OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to summarize the efficacy and safety of atomoxetine, amphetamines, and methylphenidate in schizophrenia. METHODS: We undertook a systematic review, searching PubMed/Scopus/Clinicaltrials.gov for double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled studies of …
OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to summarize the efficacy and safety of atomoxetine, amphetamines, and methylphenidate in schizophrenia. METHO …

ADHD Medication and Substance-Related Problems.

Quinn PD, Chang Z, Hur K, Gibbons RD, Lahey BB, Rickert ME, Sjölander A, Lichtenstein P, Larsson H, D'Onofrio BM. Quinn PD, et al. Am J Psychiatry. 2017 Sep 1;174(9):877-885. doi: 10.1176/appi.ajp.2017.16060686. Epub 2017 Jun 29. Am J Psychiatry. 2017. PMID: 28659039 Free PMC article.

., emergency department visits related to substance use disorders) during months in which patients received prescribed stimulant medication or atomoxetine relative to the risk during months in which they did not. ...
., emergency department visits related to substance use disorders) during months in which patients received prescribed stimulant medication …

Treatment of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Adolescents: A Systematic Review.

Chan E, Fogler JM, Hammerness PG. Chan E, et al. JAMA. 2016 May 10;315(18):1997-2008. doi: 10.1001/jama.2016.5453. JAMA. 2016. PMID: 27163988 Review.

Evidence of efficacy was stronger for the extended-release methylphenidate and amphetamine class stimulant medications (level 1B based on Oxford Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine criteria) and atomoxetine than for the extended-release alpha2-adrenergic agonists guanfacine …
Evidence of efficacy was stronger for the extended-release methylphenidate and amphetamine class stimulant medications (level 1B based on Ox …

The pharmacological management of oppositional behaviour, conduct problems, and aggression in children and adolescents with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, oppositional defiant disorder, and conduct disorder: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Part 1: psychostimulants, alpha-2 agonists, and atomoxetine.

Pringsheim T, Hirsch L, Gardner D, Gorman DA. Pringsheim T, et al. Can J Psychiatry. 2015 Feb;60(2):42-51. doi: 10.1177/070674371506000202. Can J Psychiatry. 2015. PMID: 25886655 Free PMC article. Review.

METHOD: We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of psychostimulants, alpha-2 agonists, and atomoxetine for oppositional behaviour, conduct problems, and aggression in youth with ADHD, ODD, and CD. ...CONCLUSIONS: Evidence indicates that psychostimulants, alpha-2 …
METHOD: We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of psychostimulants, alpha-2 agonists, and atomoxetine for oppositional be …

Current and emerging pharmacotherapy for the treatment of adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

Perugi G, Pallucchini A, Rizzato S, Pinzone V, De Rossi P. Perugi G, et al. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2019 Aug;20(12):1457-1470. doi: 10.1080/14656566.2019.1618270. Epub 2019 May 21. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2019. PMID: 31112441 Review.

Expert opinion: ED in adult patients with ADHD is a very common and impairing problem that can be treated with stimulants or atomoxetine. ADHD studies in adults with other neurodevelopment disorders are scarce; stimulants seem to be the most effective and safe drugs in tre …
Expert opinion: ED in adult patients with ADHD is a very common and impairing problem that can be treated with stimulants or atomoxetine …

Effect of Atomoxetine Treatment on Reading and Phonological Skills in Children with Dyslexia or Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Comorbid Dyslexia in a Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial.

Shaywitz S, Shaywitz B, Wietecha L, Wigal S, McBurnett K, Williams D, Kronenberger WG, Hooper SR. Shaywitz S, et al. J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol. 2017 Feb;27(1):19-28. doi: 10.1089/cap.2015.0189. Epub 2016 Jul 13. J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol. 2017. PMID: 27410907 Free PMC article. Clinical Trial.

OBJECTIVES: Evaluated the effects of atomoxetine on the reading abilities of children with dyslexia only or attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and comorbid dyslexia. ...In the atomoxetine-treated ADHD and comorbid dyslexia group, improvement on the CTOP …
OBJECTIVES: Evaluated the effects of atomoxetine on the reading abilities of children with dyslexia only or attention-deficit/hyperac …