CBD oil is an extract from Cannabis indica or Cannabis sativa , the same plants that produce marijuana when dried. Some believe that CBD oil cures pain, reduces anxiety, and stimulates appetite in the same way as marijuana, but without its psychoactive effects. CBD has also shown promise in treating certain types of seizures.
CBD is the short name for cannabidiol, one of the two chemicals, out of dozens in cannabis, that have the most health benefits. Another, tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), produces psychoactive effects that are described as "high." CBD oil generally does not contain THC, although some amounts may be present in products sold in certain states.
CBD oil contains CBD mixed with an inert carrier oil such as coconut oil or hemp seed oil. Bottled oil, called a tincture , is sold in various strengths. There are also CBD capsules, CBD gummies, and sublingual CBD sprays.
What is CBD oil used for?
The exact mechanism of action of CBD is unclear. Unlike THC, CBD has a relatively low affinity for cannabinoid receptors in the brain. These are the molecules that THC binds to to cause its psychoactive effects.
Instead, CBD is believed to affect other receptors, including opioid receptors, which regulate pain, and glycine receptors, which are involved in regulating the wellness hormone and neurotransmitter serotonin.
Proponents argue that CBD oil can treat a wide range of health problems, including:
- Chronic pain
- Addiction and withdrawal
- High blood pressure
- Muscle spasms
- Parkinson's disease
As the popularity of CBD grows, so does your research, but there is currently little clinical research on the effects of CBD oil. Therefore, some of these claims are better supported by research than others.
These are just a few of what the current evidence says.
CBD is showing promising results in treating anxiety disorders , as shown by a 2015 research review in the journal Neurotherapeutics . According to researchers, CBD has shown powerful anxiolytic (anxiolytic) effects in animal studies, although with conflicting results.
In all but a few studies, lower doses of CBD (10 milligrams per kilogram, mg / kg or less) improved some anxiety symptoms. Higher doses (100 mg / kg or more) had virtually no effect.
Part of this answer can be explained by how CBD works in the brain. At low doses, CBD can act as an agonist at multiple receptor sites, meaning that it acts in a similar way to surrounding molecules that normally bind to the receptor, enhancing signaling at those receptor sites. However, at higher doses, too much receptor site activity can lead to the opposite effect, nullifying the beneficial effects of CBD.
Among the few human trials evaluating the anxiolytic effects of CBD is one published in the Brazilian Journal of Psychiatry in 2019. In this study, 57 men were given either CBD oil or a placebo before speaking in public. Anxiety was assessed using physiological indicators (such as blood pressure, heart rate, etc.) and a relatively reliable test for mood known as the Visual Analogue Mood Scale (VAMS).
According to the researchers, men who received 300 mg of CBD showed less anxiety than those who received a placebo. Interestingly, those who provided 100mg or 600mg of CBD oil did not.
CBD oil can benefit people with drug addiction, according to a review of research published in 2015 in the journal Substance Abuse .
After analyzing 14 published studies (nine with animals and five with humans), researchers at the University of Montreal concluded that CBD has shown promising results in treating people with addiction to opioids, cocaine, or psychostimulants.
However, the impact of CBD on each type of addiction was often very different. For example, in opioid dependence, CBD is ineffective in reducing withdrawal symptoms in the absence of THC. Rather, CBD itself has been shown to be effective in minimizing drug-seeking behavior in users of cocaine, methamphetamine, and other psychostimulant drugs.
It has also been speculated that CBD can help treat cannabis and nicotine addiction. More research is required.
Medical marijuana is often prescribed for people with intractable (refractory) pain, including those with an incurable form of cancer. There is some evidence that CBD contributes to this benefit.
According to a 2012 study published in the Journal of Experimental Medicine , rats that were injected with inflammatory chemicals in their hind legs experienced less inflammation and neuropathic pain when treated with an oral dose and spinal injection of CBD .
Scientists believe that CBD reduces nerve pain by binding to glycine receptors in the brain, which regulate the speed at which nerve signals travel between nerve cells.
There are no human studies evaluating the use of CBD for the treatment of chronic pain. Those that do exist almost always include THC, making it difficult to isolate the individual effects of CBD.
CBD oil can reduce the risk of heart disease by relieving hypertension (high blood pressure) in some people, according to a 2017 study published in JCI Insight .
For this study, nine healthy men took 600 mg of CBD or the same dose of a placebo. Those who received CBD had lower blood pressure before and after exposure to stressful stimuli (including exercise or extreme cold), the researcher said.
Also, stroke volume (the amount of blood left in the heart after a beat) has been significantly reduced, which means that the heart works more efficiently.
The results indicate that CBD oil may be an appropriate complementary therapy for people whose hypertension is complicated by stress and anxiety. However, there is no evidence that CBD oil can treat hypertension on its own or prevent hypertension in people at risk. Although stress is known to complicate high blood pressure, it cannot cause hypertension.
In June 2018, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved Epidiolex , a CBD oral solution used to treat some rare forms of epilepsy in children under the age of 2 : Dravet syndrome and syndrome. by Lennox-Gastaut . Both are extremely rare genetic disorders that cause life-long catastrophic seizures that begin within the first year of life.
Aside from these two disorders, the efficacy of CBD in treating seizures is uncertain. Even with Epidiolex, it is unclear if the anticonvulsant effects of CBD can be explained by some other factor .
There is some evidence that CBD interacts with anticonvulsants such as onfi (clobazam) and increases blood levels. More research is required.
Possible side effects.
Clinical studies have shown that CBD oil can cause side effects. The severity and type can vary from person to person .
Common symptoms include:
- Appetite changes
- Humor changes
- Dry mouth
- Threw up
CBD oil can also increase liver enzymes (a marker of liver inflammation). People with liver disease should use CBD oil with caution, ideally under the supervision of a doctor who can regularly monitor liver enzyme levels in the blood.
CBD oils should be avoided during pregnancy and lactation. A 2018 American Academy of Pediatrics study advised women to avoid marijuana use during pregnancy due to potential risks to their baby's development. While it is unclear how CBD affects, CBD is known to cross the placental barrier.
If you are considering using CBD oil to treat a health condition, be sure to speak with your doctor to make sure this is the right option for you.
Since some CBD oils contain traces of THC, you should avoid driving or using heavy machinery while taking CBD oil, especially when starting a treatment for the first time or when using a new brand.
CBD oil can interact with certain medications, including some used to treat epilepsy. CBD inhibits the enzyme cytochrome P450 (CYP450), which metabolizes certain drugs. By interacting with CYP450, CBD can increase the toxicity or decrease the effectiveness of these medications.
Possible drug interactions with CBD include:
- Antiarrhythmic drugs such as quinidine.
- Anticonvulsants such as Tegretol (carbamazepine) and Trileptal (oxcarbazepine)
- Antifungal medications such as Nizoral (ketoconazole) and Vfend (voriconazole)
- Antipsychotic medications such as Orap (pimozide)
- Atypical antidepressants such as Remeron (mirtazapine)
- Benzodiazepine sedatives such as clonopin (clonazepam) and Halcion (triazolam)
- Immunosuppressants such as Sandimmune (cyclosporine)
- Macrolide antibiotics such as clarithromycin and telithromycin.
- Migraine medications such as Ergomar (ergotamine)
- Opioid pain relievers such as Duragesic (fentanyl) and alfentanil.
- Rifampin drugs used to treat tuberculosis.
Many of these interactions are mild and do not require treatment adjustments. Others may need to change the medicine or divide the doses over several hours.
To avoid interactions, tell your doctor and pharmacist about all prescription, over-the-counter, herbal, or recreational medications you are taking.
Dosage and preparation
There are no guidelines for the correct use of CBD oil. CBD oil is generally administered sublingually (under the tongue). Most oils are sold in 30 milliliter (ml) bottles with a dropper cap.
There is currently no known 'correct' dose of CBD oil. Depending on individual needs and what is being treated, the daily dose can range from 5 to 25 mg.
The tricky part is calculating the exact amount of CBD per milliliter of oil. Some tinctures are 1500mg per 30ml, while others are 3000mg per ml (or more).
How to Calculate Your CBD Dosage
To determine the exact dose of CBD, remember that each drop of oil equals 0.05 ml of liquid. This means that there will be approximately 600 drops in a 30ml bottle of CBD oil. If the concentration of the tincture is 1500 mg / ml, one drop will contain 2.5 mg of CBD (1500 mg ÷ 600 drops = 2.5 mg).
To use CBD oil, place one or more drops under the tongue and hold the dose for 30 to 60 seconds without swallowing. Capsules and gummies are easier to dose, although they tend to be more expensive. Sublingual CBD sprays are also available.
What to look for
CBD oil comes in full-spectrum oils or in forms that contain CBD isolates. Unlike isolates that only contain CBD, full-spectrum oils contain many compounds that are naturally present in the cannabis plant, such as proteins, flavonoids, terpenes, and chlorophyll. Alternative practitioners believe that these compounds have more significant health benefits, although there is no clear evidence for this.
Remember, since CBD oils are largely unregulated, there is no guarantee that a product is safe or effective.
According to a 2017 study published in the Journal of the American Medical Association , only 30.95% of CBD products sold online were properly labeled. Most contain less CBD than advertised, while 21.43% contain significant amounts of THC .
Here are some tips to help you find the best CBD oil:
- Buy an American. Homemade CBD oil may be safer.
- Choose organic foods. USDA organic brands are less likely to expose you to pesticides and other harmful chemicals.
- Read the product label. Even if you choose a full spectrum oil, do not assume that all the ingredients on the product label are natural. There may be preservatives, flavors, or thinners that you don't need. If you don't recognize an ingredient, ask the seller what it is or check online.
Are CBD oil and hemp oil the same?
There's no need. While some people use these terms synonymously, they can also refer to hemp seed oil , which is used primarily in cooking, food, and skin care products. CBD oil is derived from the leaves, stems, buds and flowers of the Cannabis indica or Cannabis sativa plant and must contain less than 0.3% THC. Hemp oil is made from Cannabis sativa seeds and does not contain TCH.
Frequently asked questions
It would be difficult to overdose on CBD oil as human tolerance has been shown to be very high. One study found that the toxic dose is approximately 20,000 milligrams at a time.
Whether CBD is legal or not and the legal age to purchase it varies from state to state. In many states, you must be 18 or 21 to purchase CBD oil, but this depends on the form of the product, how it was obtained (from hemp or marijuana), and its intended use (medical or recreational). Check your state laws to find out what is legal in your area.