Blood Satteor: Uses Side Effects, Procedure, Results


The blood test, also called peripheral frotis for morphology, is an important test to evaluate the problems related to blood, as in erythrocytes , leukocytes or platelets.It has a wide range of applications, including the distinction of viral infections of bacterial infections, evaluating anemia ,In search of reasons jautic and even diagnostics negative

unlike automated tests (such as CBC), technician or medical service provider,Blood provider under a microscope to determine a wide range of changes that give indications to the main diseases.

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Blood smear including blood sample under a microscope after applyingSpecial spots and tightening or changes in red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets.

There are many reasons why your health care provider can order a blood smear.Some of them include:

Blood smear is looking for numbers and characteristics of three types of blood cells:

  • erythrocytes (RBCS) are the cells that are transported to oxygen to fabrics
  • white blood cells (WBCS) -Cords that infection among other features
  • Plaquets -These are fragments of cells that play an important role in blood clotting

, which are indicated, include: <

  • Number of blood cell types
  • with white white cells,The number and proportion of several subtypes of the left globules, including lymphocytes, neutrophils, basophils, eosinophils and monocytes
  • relative cell size,as well as change in size size
  • blood cell shape
  • other features as inclusions in blood cells, cell comment,o The cellular fragments other than platelets
  • other conclusions in the blood, such as the presence of parasitic malaria

in addition to information on various types of blood cells ,Blood smear (especially in combination with the reticulocyte meter) can often be a good measure of how well the bone marrow is working.

There are several restrictions on the blood smear.If a person has received blood transfusion, the smear will include a combination of native and donated blood cells.

There are several potential forms in which the error can enter the blood smear.Delays are drawn in the creation of slips after the blood is removed, the effects of extreme temperatures or coagulation can lead to a bad sample.The preparation of the slide requires careful technology, and the results may be inaccurate if the slide is too thin or too thick.

Since the measurements are performed by the face, and not the machine, human experience, analyzing the smear (sometimes called hematopathologist) can affect the interpretation.

Blood smear is often done in combination with CBC and indexes, and this is a combination of these studies that are more useful. The blood smear also gives the ‘second reading’ to the results obtained in the CBC.

The complete blood count (CBC) provides quantity:

  • Red blood cells
  • White blood cells
  • platelets
  • >

Red cells and platelet indexes further describe the cells,Those who are present and include

other tests that can be done, combined blood smears include:

  • reticulocyte container : reticulocyte meter -This is a measure of the number of immature red blood cells and it is a good measure from that well,The bone marrow works
  • ibique bone marrow aspiration
  • chemistry panel (including trials of kidney and liver functions)
  • Thyroid tests

there are several risks associated with blood smear,Although bleeding may be more concerns for those who have a low platelet meter or blood diluents.

Blood smear can be drawn in the hospital and in most clinic settings.In some clinics, there is a laboratory that performs a test, while others send a sample to a reference laboratory.

Before the test

There is no special trabation to the Blood tense Mossi, and restrictions or activity are not required.It is important to take your insurance card to your meeting, as well as any copy of the medical records you requested it collects.

With blood spill, useful for health care providers have any previous blood tests with which it has done to compare current results.

During the test

technical will start from the point of view of the veins, and then clean the antiseptic area.Turniquet is used to create a vein and more remarkable, and then the technician will insert the needle into your Venapue there to be a sharp cut when the needle is inserted and a small small pressure, as the sample.

When the needle is deleted, you will be asked to hold on the Site of the blood patterns to limit bleeding, and then the bandage will be applied.

After the test

You can leave the laboratory when you finish your test, and go back to your room to visit the doctor or return home and receive a call with the results.Side effects are extraordinary, but may include bruises at the blood drawing site, constant bleeding and rarely, infection.

When your sample reaches the laboratory, the technologist will carefully prepare the slide.This includes the placement of blood drops on the slide, and then carefully distribute the blood along the sliding, so that there is space between the cells in the sample 200 of blood cells.

Interpretation results

Blood smear can identify important information about many states related to blood, as well as renal diseases ,A liver disease and much more. Sometimes, the diagnosis can be made on the basis of loneliness in the blood alone (for example, with hereditary elliptocytosis) and other times will indicate additional tests.

There are reference ranges for the number of erythrocytes, leukocytes and platelets, as well as the expected appearance of these cells. Each of the types of blood cells is estimated for the number, form, size and other features.

Blood smear requires a second look at several CBC conclusions, including:

  • the number of erythrocytes.
  • Anisocytosis Or the change in the size of the erythrocytes, and the cells are larger than normal, normal or less than usual.Male red blood cells are called microcytes and large red blood cells are called macrocytes. This correlates with MCV and RDW.The screwed cells are often seen with vitamin B12 and a dirt deficiency, and small cells are often seen with iron deficiency anemia and thalassemia.
  • Dark red blood cells are considered light hypercromical and red blood cells are called hypochromic. This correlates with MCHC. Light cells are often seen with iron deficiency anemia.
  • Pardocytosis or erythrocytes. This may include forms, such as tears cells (in the form of a fall), spherocytes and, as discussed below.
  • Anisopyylocytosis or change in size and in the form of erythrocytes.
  • availability of inclusions, including parasites
  • Abnormal erythrocytes. Only one percent or less erythrocytes should have a kernel (RBC started).

There are several other conclusions They can be seen in RBC, and it is one of the greatest advantages of blood fraud over automatic tests.Some of them include: / P>

  • Burr cells (ecinocytes), which are visible with renal deficiency
  • The purpose of the cell,that are visible with abnormal hemoglobins
  • acanthi and stimulating cells (RBC with thorny forecasts), can be seen with alcoholic cirrhosis and other conditions
  • elliptocytes,It can be seen with hereditary elliptosis
  • spherocytes, visible with the hereditary sphere and extravascular hemolysis
  • Falciforme cells, can be seen from the cell hozcells
  • Tears cells (tokocytosis),Visible with bone marrow fibrosis and myeloliferative diseases
  • schistocytes (fragments of erythrocytes), view with hemolytic anemia
  • helmet cells,Seen with the hemolysis of intravascular coagulation

  • Basophilic recycling (ribosomes are combined in cells), visible with toxic bone marrow damage, as with lead poisoning
  • Rouleauxión ,With regard to RBC DELO batteries that stuck and can be a sign of diseases of connective tissue, diabetes, cancer, such as multiple myeloma, or an allergic reaction to antibiotics.The formation of Rouleaux (and, consequently, the presence of RBC trapped in capillaries) is the main process of diabetic retinopathy.
  • Erythrocytes Nucleated visible with heavy hemolysis
  • Heinz bodiesor bitter cells, you can see when the hemoglobin is denatured, launched on RBCS
  • Cabot Rings (parts of the kernello that remained on the basis of),Apparently unusually unusually in the scarcity of vitamin B12 and initial poisoning
  • parasites, such as malaria parasites or bartonella parasites, can be seen in RBCS

in Blood smear,It provides important information the scope of various types of blood cells, as well as other conclusions. When a certain type of white globule increases, it can provide important indications based on the main problems.

  • lymphocytes: increases with viral infections and some leukemias.
  • Neutrophils: increases with bacterial infections, injuries and some leukemias.
  • Eosinophils: An increase in numbers is often visible with allergies and asthma. Very high levels are often associated with parasitic infections.
  • Basophils: increases can be caused by concern and is often visible with cancer.
  • Monocytes: This type of white xyl can be represented as a trash can and can be improved by many conditions.

The maturity of leukocytes can provide information about the severity of the infection or offer leukemia.

  • Land: These are young leukocytes and often increase with serious infections .The count of the bands exceeds 15 percent, called ‘left displacement’. ‘
  • Other immature leukocytes should not be seen in a blood smear (in peripheral blood) and raising a suspicion of leukemia.This includes the search for myeloblasts, methamocytes, promilocytes, myelocytes or lymphocytes, finding lymphoblasts or prolimphocytes.

Atypical lymphocytes (more than 5 percent) are often seen with infectious mononucleosis

in addition, other conclusions that can be observed,Includes:

  • toxic granches (in neutrophils): can be seen with heavy infections
  • hypersense neutrophils (more than 5 nuclear fraud): can be seen with vitamin B12 and folate deficiency,as well as the myelololiferative industry / Li>
  • Green brilliances: Sometimes it is observed in case of hepatic insufficiency and Associates with a poor prognosis
  • Neutrophils Bilobados: observed in someGenetic syndromes

The number of platelets is important for notarespecially if low (thrombocytopenia). Diagnostics can be reduced by determining if the platelets are less than usual or more than usual.Other conclusions may include Hypogram platelets.

Subsequent followers after the blood smear will depend on the results of the test.In some cases, as with hereditary elliptocytosis, the conclusions on smear are sufficient to make a diagnosis. Conclusions, such as immature leukocytes, indicate that the study of the bone marrow should be carried out.While automatic tests are fast and profitable in some configurations, we do not have technologies that can replace the human eye to distinguish many subtle changes into blood cells that give important advice in diagnosis.

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