Facial nerve: anatomy, function and treatment.

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Personal nerve and its branches regulate a series of functions of the mouth and face. Most of its divisions stimulate the muscles that allow them to open and close the eyelids, as well as the movement of the face.This nerve will also mediate the production of tears and saliva and the perception of taste in language and also receives a sensory entrance from the face. The facial nerve is the seventh of the cranial nerves 12 .

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roads medical problem Common with the participation of the seventh cranial nerve.This is a violation of the function of the facial nerve, which causes the weakness of one side of the person. The paralysis bells are usually a temporary state and is not considered a threat to the general health condition.This, however, is manifested with similar symptoms to more severe medical problems, such as stroke for and facial weakness .

Anatomy

The facial nerve has a complex anatomy. This is one of the longest cranial nerves that extend from the stitch of the brain to the terminal branches (finals) that are on the whole side.There are many structures of the face, nervous, nervous, like nuclei, segments and branching four components of the function of facial nerves.

The personal nerve has:

  • six main sections (which are described as segments) along of the road from the brain to the terminal branches to the face of divisions and divisions
  • (also called branches),that are the small nerves and around the face that merge along the segments on the main face of the face
  • three cores that are areas in brain accessories that transmit messages between the facial nerve and the engine, touch,And other areas of the brain
  • four components that can be seen as four functions categories

Structure

The brain nuclei of the bean nerve are part of the central nervous system,Although the front nerve itself is a peripheral nerve . The core of the facial nerve in the cerebral cord is called the nucleus of the nervous engine, the excellent salivary core and the core of the solitary tractus.

As the facial nerve occurs from the rain of ideas, it is divided into smaller branches, which move to the muscles and glands on the face.

Each of the nervous industry signals another set of muscles to move.Some muscles are controlled by more than one branch, and some branches control more than one muscle.

Six branches of facial branches of the face. Temporary nerves control the front muscles.The coronal nerve controls oculi orbicularis. The insect nerve controls the muscles and muscles of Oris Orbucularis. Maindibular nerve controls mental muscle.The cherry nerve controls the torchism, and the rear ear nerve controls the sink muscle.

Location

The Facial nerve appears at the level of the brains of Pontinov.Includes three sections, marrow (right over the spinal cord), pona (on the marrow), as well as the medium brain (which is the tallest area of the brain).

The first segment of the Face, intracranial nerve (tank) of the segment, moves into the skull and is divided into several branches. The nerve continues on the internal auditory canal near the ear, as a segment of meat.While traveling next to the ear structures, the labyrinth segment is the shortest segment.

The timpannet segment passes through the half-ear bones.The segment of consonants that follows gives three branches, and the extract segment of the branch on the nerves that control the face.

Anatomical variations

Minor differences in the structure and location of the branches of the facial nerves of which it usually does not They are perceptible.These differences can be considered when detailed visualization studies are carried out for medical reasons.

Variations can be difficult when it comes to surgical procedures that are associated with the facial nerve.Pre-operational planning includes visualization, as a general rule, with a contrast dye to determine the anatomy of the nerve and detect variations in advance.

Function

The four components of the facial nerve include the motor, sensory, taste and parasympathetic function.

Motor

Most of the Branches of facial nerves are the branches of the engine that stimulate the movement of the muscles of the face.These muscles include:

  • Straedius muscles in the ear that controls the vibration of the bone in the ear to help moderate rumors
  • the stylish muscles on the neck,what is involved in swallowing
  • muscoso devave digastowlo that is associated with the movements of chewing, swallowing, conversation and breathing of facial expression
  • the muscles of the person’s expression,controlled by a person’s facial nerve
  • muscle move freehead and eyebrows
  • orbiculus oculi, which controls the muscles of the eyelid
  • Bucinator muscle mass, which moves mouth and cheek
  • orbicularis oris,that controls the movements of the mouth and the lips
  • platatism, which is a large muscle on the neck.What controls the movements of the neck and jaws
  • the incititaris muscles, which is on the back of the head and moves the skin from the head of the head.

The branches of the face of the face of the facial nerve activate the muscles to move through the release of acetylcholine, the neurotransmitter, which binds to the surface of the muscle cells.

The activated muscles react to a hiring (become shorter than lengths), pulling or twisting the joints and bones nearby, and ultimately produce a movement of the face .

Sensory

The personal nerve detects a feeling of a small area behind The ear described as a sink.The sensory information of this area is transmitted through the facial nerve in the menu, then the thalamus in the brain, and, ultimately, to the cerebral cortex, where the brain can integrate and make sense of the sensation.

flavor

SENSATION OF TASS FROM THE FRONT OF THE LANGUAGE AND THE upper and top and found a lower part of the mouth of Timpani’s mouth, a small nerve,that travels from the language to the brain to face the nerves of the face.

parasympatetic

The nervous branches of the facial nerve Imitate the glands on the face. The glands of the machine are located around the eyes.These glands regularly produce a small amount of tears to lubricate and protect the eyes. They also produce more tears when a man is crying.

The domain glands near the mouth produce saliva to lubricate the internal part of the mouth and help with a breakdown of food. And the sublingual glands in the lower part of the mouth also produce saliva.The parasympathetic facial facial branches also stimulate the nasal mucosa.

The parasympathetic function of the facial nerve is closely related to the hypothalamus , which is a brain area that detects emotions and measured certain survival functions, such as digestion.

Man controls the face of the brain

Nervous function of the face is Interesting because some branches of the engine in the licensed nerve have bilateral cerebral control (both sides),And some are just a unilateral control (on one side) of the brain.The nervous stimulation of muscle movement occurs from the area of the motor of the cerebral cortex and crosses on the other side of the brain in the brain before transmitting pulses on the nerves of the face.

The lower branches of the face of the facial nerve, which serve the muscles in the lowest two thirds of the person, are controlled by messages only on one side of the brain (contralateral or opposite side).The upper branches of the face of the facial nerve, which control the top of the person, receive messages on both sides of the brain.

The fascinating thing about this reservation is that if the facial nerve can not work properly due to the problem in the brain, the muscles on the forehead can still move.

When the area of the brain that controls the face is damaged, only two-thirds lower on the face weaken.

On the other hand, if the front nerve in itself or its core in the brain is damaged or disturbed, then all side of the face should be weak in one more Significant and significantly obvious violation of the movement of the face.

The sensation mediated by the facial nerve is on the opposite side of the brain, since these messages are also intersected in the cerebral accessory.The intersection of nerve impulses is not as influential when it comes to the intermediate functions of taste and ferrous download.

Relevant conditions

There are several medical conditions that lead to a decrease in function of the facial nerve.Symptoms generally include facial weakness, since most branches of face movement to combat facial nervous animals.How can a violation of any of the other three components of the facial communication function arise?

PALLS PALLS

The most common state that affects this temperate nerve, paralysis, bells,They can occur without a certain reason (idiopathic) or as a result of viral infection. Symptoms are usually very noticeable, with total or partial paralysis on one side of the face, including the forehead.The paralulous bell can be very disturbing, often causing problems, speaking or even chewy. An eye can become dry, red and irritated, because it can be difficult to close the eyelids. The production of tears can also deteriorate.

Usually, it is improved, but it is better to seek medical attention, because the weakness of the facial nerve can occur as a result of other reasons, including tumors or severe infections.

The blow is the interruption of the blood flow in the brain.The stroke will not damage the direct damage to the facial nerve, but can cause a decrease in the function of the facial nerve of the face due to the lack of signs of the bark of the brain, causing weakness at the contralateral fund of the person. .

In some cases, the stroke can influence the ceremony and damage the nucleus, where the facial nerve occurs. In these cases, the whole side of the face will weaken, as with Bella Paralsy.However, other neurological signs will be present, such as a double vision and problems with coordination or weakness, due to damage to nearby additional structures.

The effects are not as remarkable as the effects of the paralysis of the bells, because the forehead can still move due to its two-sided control of the facial nerve of the brain.However, stroke is a serious condition that requires emergency medical attention.If you have a stroke, it is also a sign that you can assist the risk of having a heart attack or other stroke, so it is important to monitor your health care provider to resolve the prevention of vascular diseases.

Syndrome Hunt Ramsey

tile , which is a reactivation of herpes zosting (varicella virus) can affect any nerve, including the facial nerve.Polytenna, which affects the facial nerve, is described as Hunt Ramseye syndrome. Ramsay Hunt syndrome includes the weakness of the face and rash on one side of the face.This condition can also cause a decrease in sensation, dizziness or loss of hearing. Ramseye syndrome can be resolved independently, but any effect can be permanent in severe cases. GuillaInin ‘Syndrome-Barre (GBS)

It is also described as an acute demyelinating polyneuropathy, or acute ascending polyneuropathy, this is a disease of peripheral nerves that can simultaneously affect facial nerves. GBS usually starts on the legs, causing weakness. It can deteriorate rapidly, causing ascending weakness (climbing) on the legs, breathe muscles, hands and face.

This syndrome can start suddenly, and it can be fatal due to the weakness of the respiratory muscles. If you are developing GBS, you can restore whether processes respiratory support that may require a mechanical ventilation flow.

Aneurysm

Output from the blood vessel can Speak the facial nerve or one of its branches and can cause a facial weakness or hemifacial spasm.

Infection

Infection, as can preferably attack one or both nerves, causing temporary or long-term symptoms.If infection is identified, antibiotics can help accelerate restoration and can prevent continuous damage and nerve dysfunction.

Traumatic injuries

Head or injury can Drain the facial nerve or one of its branches, potentially causing the weakness of some muscles of the person,as well as the violation of the function of any of the components of the facial nerve.

Tumor

A brain The tumor or metastatic (common) cancer can be squeezed or invaded in the front nerve nuclei or the segment or the branch of the facial nerve, causing a disturbed function,Usually, on one side of the face. However, a large tumor can compress as cores in the brains, however, creating symptoms on both sides of the face.

Rehabilitation

If you have a somewhat of disease or facial nerve injury, recovery includes physiotherapy,What can help your face and mouth muscles restore at least some of your strength. The degree of recovery depends on the type and severity of the damage, To the extent that the nerve is associated, and the type of disease.

If you have a tumor or other dough pressure on the facial nerve, the elimination of surgical masses can help facilitate the disability of the nerve.The reconstruction and the advent of the facial nerves are methods that were used to repair the face of the damaged nerve.

These procedures can improve the engine function for some facial nerve injuries.The technique includes stereotactic and minimally invasive procedures, as well as more extensive open procedures.

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