Frontal lobotomy and medical ethics.

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Front lobotomy is the psycarcity that was used in the mid-1900s for the treatment of mental and neurological diseases, including schizophrenia , Bipolar / A> and epilepsy . Includes an interruption of the nerve routes from the front of most of the brain of other fractions.

ALEX-MIT / GETTY images

Front lobotomy has always been controversial, Even even when they were the main ones. The surgery was risky and constantly changed the patient’s identity.Many patients died, and many others woke up with severe and changing side effects and people with disabilities.

This article discusses the history of the lobotomy at the same time, they worked why they were used, and what influences they had in patients with a mental illness.

What are the frontal lobes?

Leisure front makes one of the four different brain sections. You have two frontal lobes, one on each side of your brain, just behind the forehead.The frontal actions are involved in making decisions, movement, speech and form their personality.

History

Lobotomy was part of a wave of new treatments for neurological diseases at the beginning of 20-The century, including electrical insult therapy ( shock therapy ).

Nobel 1949 Prize in Physiology or Medicine was to the Portuguese Neurologist Antnio Egas Moniz to create controversial procedures. While others, the Dr.Montamiz tried such surgical procedures, his success was limited and was not very accepted by the medical community.

dr. Moniz’s lobotomy was originally successful.Its first 20 patients in the lobotomy survived without serious side effects, which led neurosurgeons in Brazil, Italy and the United States to start performing the lobotomy.

DR.Montiza believed that patients with mental illness had abnormal connections between different areas in their brain, and what could help these ‘fixed chains’.Part of its inspiration came from a research article on chimpanzees, which were described as more calming and more cooperative after their frontal actions are eliminated.

This focuses on the neural circuits and is connected, and not in a piece of the brain, it remains a relationship to neurobiology of the century XXI

Lobotomy in the United States

The first lobotomy in America was performed by the neurobiological named Walter Freman and Neurrosurgeon named James Watts in 1936.The procedure has become common in the United States due to its efforts.

The initial procedure must have been done in the operating room , but Dr.Freeman thought he would limit the procedure for those who in mental institutions that could potentially benefit from the lobotomy.

Freeman invented a new and more simplified version of the procedure, which can be performed by doctors in these institutions without general anesthesia or adequate sterilization. The doctor.Watts did not agree with these decisions and stopped working with the doctor. They are in protest.

Lobotomy was the main procedure until it arose due to the middle of the 1950s. However, Dr.Frofrim continued to perform an operation until 1967, when he had the lobotomy of the last patient, a woman named Helen Mortensen. She died three days after surgery, and Freman was banned by fulfilling the lobotomy shortly after.

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Lobotomy Creator, the Portuguese Neurologist believed that mental illness It was caused by abnormal chains between parts of the brain, and that the disconnection of these chains can alleviate the symptoms.In 1936, two doctors began to fulfill the first lobotomy together in the United States, but then divided the forms of disagreements on safety and ethics.

How the lobotomy was performed

Two basic methods were used to perform the lobotomy. The technique differed as the surgeon earned access to the patient’s brain.

Original lobotomy, manufactured by Dr. Dr. Montiz, was a preminal lobotomy, while Dr. Freeman’s version was transported Lobotomia.

Prefortional Lobotomy

Preferential lobotomy, also known as prefrontal leucotomy, was carried out in the operating room.The patient calmed down with general anesthesia

after the patient secured, the surgeon drilled two phenomena in his kakone on each side of the head on preferential actions.

Next, the surgeon introduced alcohol into tissues that connect the patient’s prefrontal fractions to other parts of his brain, destroying them.

years later, Dr.Montamiz worked with another neurosurgeon called Alude Lima to develop a tool similar to the needle that reminded the choice of ice.The device known as Leukeot has a retractable cable that moniz will insert through the holes in the beam to cut the fabric on the front.

Transport lobotomy

Fault DR to approach Friman was different from several ways. For a Dr.Freeman, he intended to perform the procedure at the physician and psychiatric institutions offices, and not in the operating room.

Dr.Freeman also used electric shock therapy , not general anesthesia to calm patients. This makes it easier to perform the procedure in the configuration of outpatient, since the anesthesiologist should not to be there.

Instead of drilling stormy holes through the skull, Dr. Freeman directed the brain of the patient through eye sockets .During the transport lobotomy, it will raise the upper eyelids of the patient and indicate the leucota to the top of its output.

Next, the hammer would take and drive a tool through the bone, then five centimeters in the brain.The device will be used to remove the strokes of the brain tissue that connect the pre-calculated actions to the thalamus, a small structure inside the brain, which is slightly above the cerebral stem.

The lobotomy of the preference was performed using holes Drilling through the skull and destruction Brain fabrics with alcohol.The rotation lebitomy will include the drill through the plugs of the patient’s eyes and in the brain.

Side Effects

DR. Freman and Dr.Watts made his first prefrontal lobotomy at a woman named Alice Camp Hammatt. When he woke up from the procedure, he said he was happy. But six days later, she reported on difficulties, disorientation and agitation. However, Dr.Freman considered the success of his lobotomy. / P>

In 1942, Dr. Freeman and DoctoRotts published his First case of studying the effectiveness of the lobotomy of its patients.From the lubotomy of 200, they did so at that time, they reported that 63% of their patients showed improvements after their procedure, 23% did not have changes in symptoms, and 14% died or had serious complications.

In response to the study, the scientific writer named Herry reported on the night star of Washington , that lobotomy ‘maybe it’s One of the greatest innovations of this generation.’

, said that about three out of 10 people died from the Friman transport lobotomy. It was even very out of the procedure with constant damage to the brain, which left them physical and / or cognitive violations.

Other serious complications caused by lobotomies,Include: / P>

Medical procedure Controversy

For a constant change in many people Individuality was considered to be many to go to the borders good Medical practice .Many people have seen the procedure as a violation of the patient’s rights.

In 1950, the Soviet Union prohibited the practice, saying that this was contrary to the principles of humanity.

In the United States, Lobotomy was presented in many popular works of literature, including Tennessee Williams suddenly, last summer (1957) And Ken Kevis one flew over the nest of the pea (1962).

In both novels, the lobotomy is presented as cruel terrifying. In culture and among the general public, the procedure was increasingly considered as a type of dehumanization of medical abuse.

In 1977, the Special Committee of the United States.Congress explored if psychocarcia was used, such as the lobotomy, was used to limit individual rights. The conclusion was that the psychopory was carried out correctly, could have positive effects, and only in extremely limited situations.

Unfortunately, at this time the damage has already been done. The lobotomy was much less likely and was replaced by the growth of psychiatric drugs.

recap

Lobotomies raised the risk of serious complications, including bleeding in the brain, Dementia and death.Discussions on medical ethics in the end led to complete or practically complete prohibitions in many countries of the world.

Summary

lobotomy was the kind of pscyhosurgy, which was held in the mid-20-A century in patients with mental and neurological diseases, such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and epilepsy.

The procedure included cutting fabrics in the brains of patients with a tool called Leukota.In the prefrontal lobotomy, the brain turned through a two-hole surgeon, drilled into the patient’s skull. In the treated lobotomy, the brain turned through the plugs of the patient’s eyes.

Lobotomy caused death and destructive effects. Many patients stayed with constant physical, mental and emotional violations. In the mid-1900s, psychotic medicine was largely replaced.

Word of the Meds information received

The storm history of the lobotomy is used to remind modern doctors and patients with ethical dilemmas, which are exclusive to medicine,Especially neurology.

For the most part, the people who performed the lobotomy had good intentions to do the right things for their patients. They were due to the desire to help today’s standards may seem erroneous and inappropriate.

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