Hepatitis vaccine: uses, side effects, doses, precautions.

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The hepatitis vaccine is used to prevent viral liver infection, which affects the 1.4 million estimated people around the world and occurs in scattered outbreaks throughout States United.

There are three different hepatitis vaccines approved by Food and Drug Administration (FDA):

  • Havrix , approved for use in 1995
  • VAQTA ,Approved for use in 1996
  • twinrix (vaccine against hepatitis A and B) approved for use in 2001

Havrix, as well and the injection of VAQTA in two doses and is equally effective in preventing hepatitis infection.I can use indistinctly. Twinrix requires three to four doses.

Rafe Swan / Culture / Getty Images

Hepatitis’ vaccine Inactivated vaccines , this means that they contain dead hepatitis, viruses that can not cause a disease,But it can still cause an immune response .

Vaccines against hepatitis, like all vaccines , stimulate the production of immune cells, called antibodies, what ‘recognizes’ virus and attack ,If the refusal exposure occurs when this vaccine can help prevent infection.

USA

Havrix and VAQTA are used to immunize against hepatitis and people have 12 months and older.Immunization describes a person who is immune to infection, as a rule, with the help of a vaccine, but also due to the natural impact. The advantage of the vaccine is that it is not experiencing symptoms and potential damage from natural infection.

Hepatitis infection usually occurs through the fecal-oral route , more frequently through contaminated food and water. The disease is distributed in countries with bad sanitation, but also occurs in the United States, to a large extent due to contact with the person (for example, sexual contact ,The use of common medications or take care of someone with hepatitis a). . Readings

The vaccine against the Hepatitis A includes initial injection, accompanied by reinforcement, filmed at least 6 months, depending on the vaccine.Jumps, two doses seem to be at least 20 years old and maybe for life.

The vaccine for hepatitis usually occurs as part of the childhood vaccination program of 12 to 23 months.Vaccination against contracting hepatitis is also carried out in children from 2 to 18 years old, who were not previously vaccinated.

According to the centers to control and prevent diseases (CDC),Vaccination against hepatitis is also recommended for people who have a high risk of exposure or will probably have severe symptoms or hepatic injuries , if the impact of the impact.These include:

  • People with chronic liver diseases,including hepatitis B and hepatitis c
  • people who live with hiv
  • sex with men
  • with homeless
  • illegal drug users (both injections and injection)
  • pregnant people who are at an increased risk of infection or serious results if they are infected
  • to people who travel to the countryside hepatitis a is endemic
  • People in close contact with international adoption
  • Those professional exposure risk

except Togo, CDC says the vaccine can be provided to anyone who requests it.

Before using

. / A> For these people, you must use moninimative bottles with a separate needle and syringe.

Other parameters

In addition to Havrix and Vaqta, there is a combination of a vaccine, called Twinrix What protects against hepatitis A and hepatitis B.It requires three or four doses and approved only for people over 18 years of age.

In addition to vaccines, treatment called ‘TA> immunoglobulin therapy (IG) to prevent infection of Hepatitis (before or after exposure).There is an IG preparation approved by the FDA called Gamastan S / D.

Gamstan is delivered by injection and made of antibodies that were collected from Donated bloodReadings vary the objectives of therapy:

  • Prevention to the expected impact of : Gamistan is indicated for people with high risk of receipt or tests of severe hepatitis symptoms TO.It can be used for primary vaccination together with the hepatitis vaccine. For travelers for endemic domains of a dose, it is recommended at least two weeks before the trip. The dose depends on the duration of the stay.
  • Post-exposure IG prevention : Haman remains as soon as possible after exposure to a dose of 0.1 millilitis per kilogram of body weight (ml / kg).

For the prevention of posterior exposure, gamistan preferably the vaccine against hepatitis for seniors 40-year-old has not been vaccinated (if not available).

DOSE

Hepatitis vaccines are available in a disposable bottle or disposable syringe prefigure, such as 0, 5 ml or 1.0 ml. Dose.The vaccine is given by intramuscular injection (in the big muscle) professional health.

The vaccination series varies according to age and the type of vaccine.

<рисунок>

вакцина возраст 1-Soy una dosis booster

havrix 12 meses a 18 años 0.5 ml 0.5 ml 6-12 meses después havrix mayores de 18 años 1.0 ml 1.0 ml of 6 to 12 months after

VAQTA 12 months to 18 years 0.5 ml

0.5 ml 6-18 months after VAQTA Over 18 years 1.0 ml 1.0 ml of 6 to 18 months after

Havrix and VAQTA can be used indistinctly.

Side Effects

As in all vaccines, there is a potential for side effects, but most of them are soft and tend to be resolved during the day or two.In rare cases, severe side effects may occur.

General

According to research Preliminary clinical market, the incidence of side effects is varied slightly according to the type of vaccine.

Havrix

  • Injectable pain (30.3%)

  • robs at the injection site (23.9%)

  • Swelling of the injection site (9.9%)

  • Fever of more than 100 degrees (5.4%)

VAQTA
  • Injectable pain (20.3%)

  • Place of injection effects (12.7%)

  • Fever More than 100 degrees (10%)

  • Swelling of the injection site (7.6% )

Loss of appetite, drowsiness and irritability (especially in babies) are also common.

Strong

, Perhaps the greatest concern for vaccination against hepatitis is serious, allergies from all over the body, Known as anaphylaxia .In spite of this, what increases rare, with the investigation, reports are something, if there are any case after 25 years of use. If an anaphylaxis occurred, it can be associated with the vaccine, the vaccine or latex components used in the prefiliated syringes.

although the reactions are rare . The same problems were not marked with VAQTA.

Warnings and interactions

Some people experienced a weak ( syncope ) shortly after vaccination due to the fall in blood pressure.This is not an emergency without long-term consequences. However, a waterfall can occur as an injury, any Havrix or VAQTA given must be monitored within 15 minutes after shooting. .Vaccines should be used only during pregnancy, if immunization is clearly necessary.

The efficiency of the hepatitis vaccine can be undermined in people in immunosuppressants immunosuppressants characterize the immune response, reducing the Body capacity to generate protective antibodies.

Let your health provider know if you are in any of the following:

In such cases, vaccination can be recommended before the start of therapy or after completing therapy .

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