How to measure vital signs normal adult


vital signs measurements most basic functions of the organism in body temperature , respiratory rate ( breathing ) , heart rate and blood pressure .Medical professionals use these four dimensions , in many respects , as well as a deviation from normal adult vital signs may be important in the assessment of overall health , indicating that the disease ,and monitor the effectiveness of treatment.

Compared to high-tech medical tests , measurement of vital signs of individuals is relatively simple and straightforward , requiring little more than basic medical equipmentâ thermometer , stethoscope ,cuffand blood pressure stopwatch or other timing device .Informatsiya , which can be obtained , in some cases, it may be a matter of life or death , or at the least , sickness and health.

Although factors such as age , sex, weight and activity level can play a role in the fact that vital signs individuals may indicate that the agreement of normal WHAT medical community for adults as a whole.

normal for THEAD>
body temperature 97.8 F 99.1 F , with an average of 98 .6 F
respiration (breathing) rate 12 to 18 breaths per minute
100 beats per
S t .120/80 mmHg

body temperature

body temperature can vary during the day , even for a person who is healthy .As a rule , it is the lowest in the awakening and above on the same day.

temperature of the measuring body

to maintain temperature adults can be taken by mouth (orally ) ,hand ( axillary in the ear canal ( drum ) using a termómetropara these applications p>

values can vary depending on whether one is used p>

  • oral .Strong> F conventional oral average temperature , but it may typically be in the range 97 to 99 often indicates infection or disease li>

  • axillary . temperature of the armpit support is usually Low , oral temperature twice a degree .
  • Drum temperature of the ear, usually above , oral temperature twice a degree.LI> UL>

    Placing someone can an indication that your body temperature higher than normal , but not trust a method that determine the disease .NI thermometers used in the forehead, which is They found unreliable. Health consequences body temperature

    temperature of the body ,which it is higher than what is commonly called fever ( pyrexia) and usually a signoque the body is trying to fight the disease or virus or bacteria causing infektsiyuubivaya . Fever also causes the immune system of the body.P>

    causes fever in adults include : p>

    • Some medications , such as antibiotics , medications blood pressure and anticonvulsants
    • heat illness (eg ,, heatstroke ,heat exhaustion )
    • Autoimmunity
    • Cancer

      temperature Display below 95 F may be a heat losing sign body faster , than it is capable of producing ITA medical emergency known as hypothermia,in the heart, nervous system and other organs can not work normally .

      If left untreated , can lead to hypothermia complete failure of the heart and respiratory system , and eventually death.

      Respiratory rate

      respiration rate refers to the number of breaths per minute, taken while at rest .It is one of the easiest to measure vital signs , as you only need watch or timer.

      Measurement of breathing Rate

      In order to determine the respiration rate , set a timer for one minute and count the times your chest rise and fall , the alarm sounds .May be helpful to keep a loved one, or doctor who helps measure your breathing , watching your own breath can make you breathe more slowly than , of course, will that leads to incorrect results.

      Average number of breaths per minute for an adult at rest is between 12 and 18 years . The health consequences of abnormal respiratory rate

      ) is an indicator of potential health problems .

      La taquipnea
      use of narcotics ( dlyameditsinskie or recreational purposes ) Feverinfección
      Alcohol Dehydration
      metabolic problems (hypothyroidism ) disease ( COPD ,lung cancer,
      Certain conditions of the brain such as stroke or cerebral traumáticolesión Acidosis (increased acidity of the blood)
      drug overdose overdosedrugs

      pulse ( heart rate )


      a person sozdaetsyavsplesk blood through the arteries when the heart beats .The frequency of the pulse is a measure of how many times per minute , can detect the increase.

      The resting heart rate normal for healthy adults ranges from 60 beats per minute to 100 beats per minute , but can be variationsnotably among athletes . Those who have lots of cardiovascular exercise can have resting heart rate as low as 40 beats per minute , because his heart is strong enough to liven more than usual amount of blood to the beat.

      Measurement of pulse

      pulse can be felt more easily on the side of the neck , inside the radial wrist ) inside the arteries they are close to the skin surface .

      In order to get your pulse on your wrist , a watch is needed with a second :

      • Using the tips of the first and second fingers (not the thumb) press firmly but soft on the inside of the wrist,until you feel the pulse
      • Once you have located the heart rate , keep an eye on the clock.; when the second arm reaches 12 starts counting each pulse ( pulse) of continuously for 60 seconds ( until the second hand again reaches 12 ) .Alternativamente , you can count on for 15 seconds and multiply by four the result.

        Your heart rate can also be measured in the neck, but it is important not to pressure pulses on both sides of the bottom of the neck ; this approach could risk blocking blood flow to the brain. The health implications of abnormal impulses

        In addition to counting the pulse when checking important to pay attention to how strong or weak pulse or regular as is .Speed, strength and rhythm of the beating of the heart can reveal a lot about the health of the heart as well as a decree for signs of diseases or conditions that could affect how the heart functions .

        slow heart rate (bradycardia ) can be specified :

        • Breakdown sinus node (the area of cells in the chamber of the heart that controls its rhythm) : causessymptoms , sinus bradycardia is the most common reason for needing a pacemaker , but is rarely life threatening.

        • heart block, in which some or all of electrical impulses , : Generated

          Rapid pulse (tachycardia ) may indicate sinus blocked before reaching the ventricles ( the two chambers bottom of the heart )

          • Any conditional which the heart is beating fasterthan usual , such as during exercise or stress

          • One of the two types of cardiac arrhythmias (changes in speed or heart rate ) : supraventricular tachycardia,arising in the atria of the heart and ventricular tachycardia,arising in the ventricles

            Blood pressure

            blood pressure refers to the force of blood their arteries each time the heart beats .Blood pressure readings two numbers ( for example mmHg or Hg ) : P>

            • systolic strong> .This is the highest number since it is the pressure when the heart contracts .

            • The second ( bottom) number is the diastolic .This is the lowest number since the pressure when the heart relaxes . Measuring blood pressure

              instrument called a sphygmomanometer is used to measure blood pressure.It comprises a sleeve which is placed around the top of the arm and a small pump that fills the sleeve with air, squeezing his hand until circulation is not cut .

              At this point , a small valve is opened to allow the air to flow slowly from the sleeve .Head Over Heels , the health worker will hold a stethoscope against the inside of the elbow , to hear the sound of the blood pulsing through the arteries

              The first sound is the systolic pressure. second will be the diastolic pressure .That’s part of the sphygmomanometer meter indicates the number of concrete, which correspond to each of them . health consequences blood pressure blood pressure readings are normal or higher or lower than normal indicate certain problems Health.

              The American Heart Association recognizes the following categories of measuring blood pressure,what is more altode (high blood pressure ) Normal :



              BP Indications constantly changing 120 mm Hg129 mm Hg systolic and less than 80 mm Hgdiastólica
              step Hypertension 1 indications that vary continuously from 130 mm Hg to 139 mm Hg sistolicheskoeili 80 mmHg 89 mmHgdiastólica
              Hypertension step 2 indications are sequentially 140/90 mmHg or higher
              hypertensive crisis read more than 180/120 mm suddenly hgy remains high during the measurement of the second poslepyat minutes time . This stage of high blood pressure requiring immediate medical attention

              When the pressure blood below normal meaning ,the heart can no longer provide sufficient blood supply to me the body .This may be due to basic health , such as anemia, heart problems , or infección.La dehydration or certain medications can also cause a reduction in blood pressure.

              chronically low ( or even under borderline ) blood pressure can have a negative effect on riñones.En rare cases, a sharp drop can cause fainting (syncope ) , shock , coma and even death.

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