Lisinopril: Use, Side Effects, Dosage, Precautions

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Lisinopril (brand names Prinivil and Zestril) is an angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor . It is used to treat hypertension and heart failure . Lisinopril also improves survival when taken after a recent heart attack or stroke.

ACE inhibitors cause blood vessels to dilate (dilate), which lowers blood pressure. These drugs block ACE activity, leading to a decrease in the production of angiotensin II in the body. Angiotensin II acts directly on the blood vessels.

Lisinopril is available in the form of tablets for oral administration (by mouth), as well as in the form of a liquid solution. Oral tablets are available in 2.5, 5, 10, 20 and 40 mg tablets. The liquid form of lisinopril should be specially ordered by your healthcare professional. Lisinopril is sometimes combined with other blood pressure medications (such as hydrochlorothiazide) to make it more effective. Anxiety is a possible side effect of lisinopril.

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Applications

The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved lisinopril for the treatment of :

  • Heart failure
  • Hypertension
  • Acute (sudden and severe) myocardial infarction (heart attack)
  • High blood pressure in children 6 years and older

Use not indicated on the label

Lisinopril is sometimes used off-label to treat conditions not approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA).

Lisinopril misuse includes:

Lisinopril is sometimes prescribed to treat kidney disease. Although some clinical studies have been done to support the efficacy of lisinopril for certain types of kidney disease, such as proteinuric kidney disease (high protein content in the urine), more research is needed before it is considered the main treatment for this condition. .

Before taking Lisinopril

Before prescribing lisinopril, your healthcare provider will check your blood pressure readings and may do some blood tests to monitor your kidney function. You can also control your blood potassium levels because lisinopril can raise your potassium levels.

Before taking lisinopril, be sure to tell your doctor if:

  • You are taking any other prescription, over-the-counter (OTC) medications, vitamins, supplements, or any other medications.
  • You are pregnant, planning to become pregnant, or are breastfeeding.
  • Have kidney disease
  • Have heart problems
  • You have been diagnosed with low blood pressure.
  • He is scheduled for major surgery of any kind.
  • You have recently had a bout of diarrhea or vomiting.
  • You are following a specific diet, such as a low sodium diet.
  • Have had an allergic reaction to lisinopril
  • You are considering taking an allergic desensitization course.

Lisinopril and diabetes

Lisinopril can affect your blood sugar level, so you may need to check your blood sugar level more often while taking this medicine. If you have diabetes, be sure to talk to your doctor.

Other ACE inhibitors

Other ACE inhibitors include:

Ace inhibitors and beta blockers

Beta-blockers are another medicine used to lower blood pressure. One of the main differences between lisinopril and beta-blockers is that beta-blockers are effective in treating angina (chest pain).

Dose

Your healthcare provider will prescribe the dose of dosinopril that is right for you, depending on many factors, including the type of medical condition, such as high blood pressure or heart failure. Always take lisinopril exactly as directed by your healthcare professional.

Medium dose

The average starting dose of lisinopril is 2.5 to 10 mg. Generally, it should only be taken once a day.

According to the FDA, lisinopril should be started at a low dose and gradually increased over several weeks.

The starting dose depends on the type of treatment for which you are taking lisinopril, for example:

  • High blood pressure: 10 mg once a day.
  • Recent heart attack: 5 mg once a day.
  • Heart failure: 5 mg once a day.

The maximum dose of lisinopril is 80 mg once a day.

Doses for children are lower and depend on many factors, such as the health condition being treated, the child's age, weight, and more.

How to take and store

How to take lisinopril

Lisinopril can be taken with food or alone. Do not crush the tablet; swallow whole with a little liquid.

If you have been prescribed a liquid form, you will receive a syringe to help you measure the exact dose. If you are not sure how to measure your dose, be sure to speak with your nurse, pharmacist, or other healthcare provider.

Correct measuring devices

Make sure you are using a suitable device to measure the liquid form of lisinopril. Do not measure it with a common household measuring device, such as a teaspoon.

How to store Lisinopril

Storage guidelines for lisinopril include:

  • Store at room temperature
  • Keep out of the reach of children.
  • Protect the bottle from getting wet.
  • Keep the lid tightly closed
  • Throw away any unused tablets or liquid when the expiration date has passed.

Side effects

general

Common lisinopril side effects that generally do not require immediate medical attention (if they persist or cause discomfort) include:

  • Change in taste perception
  • Cough (sometimes called a lisinopril cough)
  • Dizziness
  • Photosensitivity
  • Headache
  • Fever
  • Anxiety

If your anxiety is severe or persists after taking lisinopril for a short time, you should inform your doctor. Abrupt discontinuation of lisinopril may cause or worsen the anxiety associated with lisinopril.

Stopping lisinopril abruptly can also cause tachycardia (heart palpitations) and sweating.

Severe form

Serious side effects that you should report to your healthcare professional immediately include:

  • Dysuria – trouble urinating, which can be a sign of kidney problems.
  • Signs of high potassium levels include muscle weakness, chest pain, or an irregular heartbeat.
  • Signs of liver problems: flu symptoms, light colored stools, dark urine, general malaise, pain in the upper right corner of the abdomen, nausea, yellowing of the skin or the whites of the eyes .
  • Dizziness, fainting, lightheadedness, or falls – These are signs of low blood pressure.
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Allergic reaction: includes symptoms such as rash, swelling of the face, lips, throat, hands, feet, or tongue.
  • Difficulty breathing

This list cannot describe all the possible side effects of lisinopril. If you experience any other side effects, be sure to consult your doctor. You can also report side effects to the FDA by calling 1-800-FDA-1088.

Lisinopril: warnings and interactions

Do not stand up or sit up suddenly after taking lisinopril, especially if you are older, as this may increase your risk of falls. Do not use heavy equipment or do any activity that requires mental alertness.

Lisinopril should be used with caution in certain conditions, including:

  • Hyperkalemia (high potassium levels) : ACE inhibitors can increase potassium levels in the blood.
  • Afro -descendants: Some studies have shown that people of African descent do not respond well to ACE inhibitors, and this population may also be at increased risk of angioedema , a life-threatening complication of the drug.

Note that these are not all warnings for taking lisinopril; Be sure to discuss any other precautions or warnings associated with ACE inhibitors with your healthcare professional.

What is a black box warning?

A black box warning (also called a box warning) is a serious drug-related safety hazard.

Lisinopril has a black box warning regarding use during pregnancy. ACE inhibitors (such as lisinopril) can cause injury or even death to the developing fetus in the second or third trimester of pregnancy. If you become pregnant, you should talk to your doctor about how to stop taking lisinopril as soon as possible. If you are taking lisinopril and planning to become pregnant, you should discuss medication changes BEFORE you conceive.

Precautions and contraindications.

Medications that may interact with lisinopril include:

  • Hymenoptera venom (insect venom used to treat immune or inflammatory diseases)
  • Aliskiren
  • Certain diabetes medications
  • Potassium supplements
  • Substitute for salt
  • NSAIDs should be taken with caution.

This list of medications is not exhaustive, so be sure to give your doctor a list of all the types of medications you are taking, including the dosage and timing of the medications.

Be sure to include over-the-counter medications, herbal and natural supplements (including vitamins), and any other medications you are taking.

Other contraindications

Other contraindications to lisinopril include:

  • Pregnant or breastfeeding mothers
  • History of angioedema
  • Bilateral renal artery stenosis
  • Renal insufficiency
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