Menstruation summary

From the first period ( menarche ) to the end of menopause , the only goal of your monthly cycle is reproduction. If a fertilized egg does not implant in the wall of the uterus after ovulation, the mucous membrane falls off. This is your menstrual cycle. Menstruation occurs every month because you have not become pregnant.

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Regular menstruation occurs on average every 28 days, or about 14 days after regular ovulation. When the body is not working properly to induce ovulation, menstruation does not occur regularly.

Believe it or not, the uterus is more of an outside observer in this monthly process. The main players are the two brain structures: the hypothalamus and the pituitary gland , as well as the ovaries. This is technically called the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonad axis. When the interactions of this neuroendocrine trio are working properly, ovulation and (unless pregnancy is the result of fertilization of a released egg) occurs at regular intervals.

The average age at the beginning and end of menstruation is 12 and 52 years, respectively.

Stages of the menstrual cycle.

Before menstruation, many hormonal changes occur in the body. This happens predictably every month and is the driving force behind your menstrual cycle.

The first day

Menstruation is a cyclical rejection of the lining of the uterus. Some may think that menstruation marks the end of their cycle. Even the usual term for menstruation, "your period," makes you think something is coming to an end. In fact, menstruation marks the first day of a new cycle.

When the bleeding starts, the brain has already started hormonal changes to start a new cycle.

Think of the first day of your period as the first day of your cycle.

Follicular phase

As your menstrual cycle begins and accumulates mucus from the previous cycle, your brain releases hormones that stimulate the ovaries to release estrogen and prepare the egg for ovulation. This is called the follicular phase .

Under the influence of an increase in estrogen levels, the lining of the uterus or endometrium begins to thicken or grow.


In response to another change in hormone levels in your brain, your ovary releases an egg (oocyte) and ovulation occurs. This usually happens on day 14 of the cycle.

Luteal phase

The follicle that released the egg now begins to shrink into a structure known as the corpus luteum. It continues to produce estrogen, but now it also begins to produce progesterone.

Although both estrogen and progesterone are produced in this part of the cycle, the concentration of the latter predominates. Under the influence of progesterone, the lining of the uterus begins to change to prepare it for pregnancy.

In the second half of the cycle, the lining of the uterus becomes thicker and more complicated by inflammation of the glands, blood vessels, and tissues. These are all the changes that prepare you for the implantation and pregnancy process.

If implantation of a fertilized egg does not occur, the corpus luteum of the ovary continues to contract. During this time, estrogen and progesterone levels continue to drop. When this happens, the blood vessels that dilate in the thickened lining narrow and block blood flow. The thickened mucous membrane, deprived of the blood flow that supports it, dies and is excreted from the uterus.

Changes in your period

Your menstrual cycle is unique to you. How much bleeding do you have, when does it start, and how long has it been like no other. (The normal range for your period is every 21 to 35 days.) However, it is also common and very normal for your own period to change from month to month.

Depending on the month, your period may come a few days before / after, or your period may be heavy / light. Many factors can influence hormonal changes in your body, including:

  • Stress
  • The exercise
  • Weight gain / loss
  • Trip
  • Disease

Some women's cycles are more sensitive to fluctuations in hormone levels than others. Although menstruation can change, this is normal, but it also remains completely regular.

Some women have very heavy bleeding and / or very painful periods. It is not normal. If you don't participate in your normal activities or miss work or school due to painful or heavy periods, talk to your doctor.

Missed periods

It's okay to skip your period every now and then. But if you start having regular periods, missing your period could be a sign of a serious health problem. However, if you do have sex, pregnancy is the most common cause of missed periods.

Consider taking a pregnancy test if you are more than seven days late or have not had your period.

If you are not pregnant, a missed period usually means that you have not ovulated. Ovulation can be affected by the same factors that can affect the menstrual cycle, such as stress and exercise.

If you determine that you are not pregnant, you can wait another month to see if your period is approaching. If you miss your period for two to three months in a row, talk to your doctor.


Normal periods are not a disease or a disability. There is no medical reason to limit physical activity during menstruation, including swimming, yoga, and all extreme sports. It is also perfectly safe, albeit promiscuous, to have sex during menstruation .

There are many options to help you control your menstrual cycle. You can choose a product based on your convenience, comfort, or lifestyle. Whichever product you choose, it is important to change it frequently. Try to avoid foods that contain fragrances or perfumes, as they can be very irritating.

Some people find that after their period, they need to shower their vagina. Not only is it not necessary, but it also kills the beneficial bacteria in the vagina, keeping it clean and healthy.

Get the word of drug information

Menstruation is the normal functioning of the female body. You shouldn't be ashamed of your periods and they shouldn't interfere with your lifestyle. If you have menstrual problems, see your doctor.

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