myelosupprissSowsion or to suppress the bone marrow is defined as a reduction in the ability of the bone marrow to obtain blood cells.This can lead to the lack of erythrocytes (anemia), leukocytes (leukopenia) and platelets (thrombocytopenia).Myelosuppression can occur when the damaged bone marrow stem cells (for example, chemotherapeutic drugs), when filled with (tumor cells or fibrosis) or due to the failure of the bone marrow.
Hematopoeis, bone marrow, and myelosuppression
To understand myelosuppression,It is useful to talk about the functions of the bone marrow. In the bone marrow, all cells of blood cells, leukocytes and tsetugochin with a type of cells: hematopoietic stem cell .
miselosuppress refers to the process that also interrupts these stem cells. Therefore, it affects all different types of blood cells; Red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets.
The term myelolalassation refers to strong myelosupression, in which the blood cells of non- are made.
Cells affected in myelosuppression
Myosupresor It can lead to a decrease in production:
Red blood cells (RBC)
Red blood cells contain hemoglobin, protein,That is responsible for the union and delivery of oxygen to all tissues of the body.
White blood cells.Protection of our body against microorganisms such as bacteria, viruses and fungi,as well as cancer cells that are denied at
the platelets are responsible for the help of the blood to form a clutch when the blood vessel is broken .
You can ask yourself if the immunosuppression is the same. When installing myelosuppression, the production of leukocytes decreases, therefore, there will be immunosuppression.
But immunosuppression does not always mean myelosuppression. For example, a medication (or other process) can suppress leukocytes or other specific parts of the immune system, but does not affect erythrocytes or platelets.
Panctopenia: Another confusing and generally caused by myelosuppression. The term ‘patient’ refers to inadequate numbers of all types of blood, erythrocytes, leukocytes and platelets.
SYMPTOMS The symptoms of myelosuppression depend on The basic cause, the level of deficiency of blood cells and much more. Low erythrocyte shells can lead to fatigue, frivolity, weakness, pale leather and nails, fast heart rate and lack of breath.Since the erythrocytes carry oxygen in the blood to different parts of the body, the low number can also cause symptoms similar to the obstruction of the blood vessel, such as the pan of angina.
The symptoms of myelosuppression depend on The basic cause, the level of deficiency of blood cells and much more.
Low erythrocyte shells can lead to fatigue, frivolity, weakness, pale leather and nails, fast heart rate and lack of breath.Since the erythrocytes carry oxygen in the blood to different parts of the body, the low number can also cause symptoms similar to the obstruction of the blood vessel, such as the pan of angina.
Low blood cell risk infections.Symptoms are associated mainly between different types of infections, such as fever or chills, cough, redness around the edges or discomfort, diarrhea or urination pain.
Low platelets can lead to bleeding.Symptoms may include bruises, nose films, severe menstrual periods, blood in urine or chairs or wounds that do not stop bleeding.
There are several bone forms the Brain can be altered so that it does not produce blood cells,But they can be divided into three main categories:
- Stem cell damage
- Bone marrow error
Regardless of the method, The result is that fewer blood cells are formed.Sometimes, the reason for myelosuppression is very obvious, for example, when a person receives chemotherapy, and sometimes it is much less clear, and the additional tests are necessary to determine which categories are involved and then a specific disorder.
Damage to stem cells
The most common cause of mylosupressure is medications that slow down the capacity of stem cells and It specializes descendants to divide and multiply.All our blood cells are constantly replenished. Medications for medications, such as chemotherapy preparations cause the suppression of the bone marrow.Chemotherapy kills all rapid separation cells, such as cancer cells, including cells that are converted into all types of blood cells.
This type of myelosopressia will generally rotate if the medications that cause the hungry stops.
Replacement of the bone marrow / Bone marrow curr
The marrow Bone can be ‘olosted “as blood cancer or metastatic cancer, so there is no’ space ‘for the normal manufacture of blood cells.Bone marrow cancers, such as leukemiaia, lymphomas, myeloma, metastatic cancer bone marrow (for example, breast cancer and other solid tumors, can lead to ‘jump’, so there is no place for The hematopa.
The bone marrow can also be filled with the presence of cicatricial tissue (fibrosis) in such conditions as <α> myelofibrosis .
Bone marrow error
Instead of being depressed medicine, the bone marrow can be destroyed by several toxins and chemical products.When this is, the drug stop will not lead to the fact that the bone marrow will lead to the fact that its work in the production of blood cells.
Intentional / myeloabulation myelosuppression is sometimes used as cancer treatment.In the blood associated with blood crays present in the bone marrow, chemotherapy is a very high dose used for bone marrow.When the bone marrow is clear ” bone marrow marrow transplant “ or peripheral blood stem cell transplantation is carried out to displace the bone marrow with healthy and inappropriate cells.
When stem cells do not grow and share and specialize in unique types of blood cells (when there is a suppression of the bone marrow or the suppression of myelosuppression) inThe type of Bolsletletsse call them:
Anemia refers to the deficiency of red blood cells.In addition to the symptoms mentioned above, an inadequate amount of erythrocytes can lead to a decrease in oxygen in the blood and tissues ( hypoxia ), which potentially leads to the death of the tissue (for example, in A heart attack).
Leukopenia refers to the deficiency of leukocytes. With cancer, most of the time people will hear about neutropenia. Neutrophils is a type of leukocytic cell, which is our first line of protection again with bacteria, viruses and fungi (and against cancer cells).
Thrombocytopeny refers to the deficiency of platelets. Constalocytopenia, in turn, can be classified as soft, moderate or heavy.
Diagnostics Myelosopressia will depend on many factors. In the case of chemotherapy caused by myelosuppression, reason is often obvious.In other cases, a careful history, a physical examination and a visualization test will be carried out, but the laboratory analysis is often the main diagnosis.
usually begins with the CARE CLINE CLINE COUNTRY to consider the numbers of each type of globule.Blood cell rates (for example, how mcv , MCHC, RDW , reticulocyte account and MPV / A>) can provide Additional information about the quantity, form and survival of blood cells (for example,If they are not made or instead, they break). The peripheral blood meterfology for morphology can provide additional information that describes visible cell types and any anomaly.
An estimate of the bone marrow of the bone marrow (aspiration and / or biopsy) is often the next step and can provide direct information on the quality of the bone marrow, for example,If it is replaced by a scar cloth or cancer cells.
You can do the number of other tests to further clarify any conclusion or search for causes.
The treatment of myelosuppression, including the solution of the main causes (s), increases blood cells, if necessary, and the treatment of symptoms associated with disadvantages.
Treatment of reasons
Basic cause treatment: When possible, you can often solve an anomalies, But it can take time failure if it is associated with medications or chemotherapy,The treatment can be stopped or postponed. If it is associated with the infiltration of the bone marrow, and the subsequent convexity, the treatment of cancer in the bone marrow is the most important step.If it is associated with the failure of the bone marrow, it will be important to see if the inability of the bone marrow is reversible, and, if not, treatment, such as replacing blood cells and bone marrow transplantation.
Low blood treatment.
For the symptoms associated with myelosuppression, the treatment can be directed to a certain deficiency of the symptoms cells. For anemia, anemia, transfusion, iron or growth factors can be administered.For neutropenia, the risk of infection or the presence of an infection can be used, growth factors can be used (as neulasta), and the infection is processed aggressively with combined antibiotics.For low platelet levels that increase the risk of bleeding, transfusion may be required.Chemotherapy is used, treatment may be required, it can be delayed until the amount of blood at adequate levels can be delayed.
Help and prevention
Sometimes low blood values do not require treatment, but still have things you can do to increase the risk.These measures of Mudra lifestyle, even if your low values are processed. For anemia: become slow (to avoid fainting), stimulate during the day, perform some easy-to-day exercises, talk with your health care provider about justice with fatigue, associated with cancer or Your basic state.
Sometimes low blood values do not require treatment, but still have things you can do to increase the risk.These measures of Mudra lifestyle, even if your low values are processed.
For anemia: become slow (to avoid fainting), stimulate during the day, perform some easy-to-day exercises, talk with your health care provider about justice with fatigue, associated with cancer or Your basic state.
For leukopenia: avoiding crowds, eats only meat, which are fully prepared, with a mask in public, if specified,
For thrombocytopenia: avoiding the activities in which it can be injured (such as sports contact) Be careful or remove shave with a soft toothbrush, do not take anti-inflammatory medications (for example, Advil),What can increase the bleeding. Beware that some preparations for medications (such as aspirin) and nutritional supplements (such as) can increase bleeding time.
Word of obtaining information medications
There are many reasons for myelosopreia , and determine the reasons why it is important to determine from the best treatment options.Work with your health care provider to understand your diagnosis and determine the best treatment options for you as a person. And remember that there are things that can be done, which can reduce any symptoms experienced due to myelosuppression.