Most common ear, nose and throat problems

There are many different diseases of the ear, nose, and throat (ENT) and an even greater variety of characteristic symptoms. The following list presents the four most common ENT diseases. Not everyone will have the same set of symptoms or they will appear as severe. In some cases, a doctor or otolaryngologist will be required to make the correct diagnosis and offer the appropriate treatment.

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Ear infections

Ear infections are one of the most common diseases of the ENT organs. They occur when germs enter the middle ear.

The Eustachian tube, a tiny canal that begins in the ear and flows down the back of the throat, generally protects against unwanted germs. If this tube is too small or swollen due to swelling or clogged with fluid and mucus, bacteria or other germs can enter the ear and cause an infection.

Signs and symptoms of an ear infection include:

  • Pain and pressure
  • Hot
  • Loss of balance
  • Hearing impairment
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Fluid discharge (indicates perforation)

Ear infections are more common in children than adults and are the most common type of infection in infants and young children. If a young child has an ear infection, it is often difficult to detect. Distinguishing features in infants and toddlers include:

  • Pulling or tugging at the ears
  • Increased irritability, especially at bedtime
  • Inability to be intimidated by a loud noise or to respond to its name.
  • Eating or drinking abnormally

Strep throat infection

Strep is short for a family of bacteria called streptococci . Strep throat occurs when the throat and surrounding structures become infected with this germ. Although a sore throat is a common infection, many other infections share the same symptoms.

Symptoms usually appear suddenly, including:

With a sore throat, runny nose and cough are especially absent. You may also suspect strep throat if you've been in contact with someone with a strep infection in the past two weeks. Children ages 5 to 15 are most at risk. Also, during the winter months, you are more likely to get a strep infection.

A strep throat infection should be diagnosed with a throat culture or rapid antigen test at your healthcare provider's office to confirm that the strep infection is compared to another bacterial or viral infection.


Sinusitis occurs when germs multiply in the hollow cavities of the skull that surround the eyes and nose. The infection can become trapped and cause swelling, pressure, and pain.

Acute sinusitis is often secondary to the common cold , so you are more likely to develop sinusitis during the winter months. Chronic sinusitis that persists for more than 12 weeks can be the result of untreated allergies or a chronic condition such as bronchial asthma.

Symptoms of sinusitis include:

  • Headache
  • Cough
  • Discharge from the nose
  • Congestion
  • Hot
  • Fatigue
  • Toothache (mainly molars)

Sleep apnea

Apnea is the medical term for stopping breathing. Sleep apnea is a disorder that causes breathing to stop for short periods during sleep. Symptoms include:

  • Wake up often in the middle of the night.
  • Feeling refreshed upon waking
  • Daytime sleepiness
  • Humor changes
  • Depression
  • Waking up with a dry sore throat
  • Morning headaches

In addition to these symptoms, many people with sleep apnea have been told by their spouses or family members that they snore, choke, choke, or even momentarily stop breathing during sleep. You are more likely to have sleep apnea if you are overweight, have enlarged tonsils, or take sedatives before bed.

Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) occurs in 2% of middle-aged women and 4% of middle-aged men, especially those who are obese. If left untreated, sleep apnea can cause potentially serious health complications, such as hypertension (high blood pressure), coronary heart disease , stroke , and heart failure .

Get the word of drug information

Most people will experience one or more of these disorders in their lifetime. While visiting your healthcare provider, talking about your symptoms can help your healthcare provider diagnose an ENT disorder .

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