Sudden appearance of sweet-smelling urine: causes, treatment.


Sweet smelling urine can be caused by a number of medical conditions, some of which can be serious and require immediate medical attention.

The sweet smell itself comes from chemicals or by-products that are formed in the urine from certain bacteria, glucose, or amino acids. The presence of these chemicals is abnormal, especially if the onset is sudden.

Some conditions that cause a sweet smell to urine can be life-threatening and require immediate medical attention.

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Causes of the sweet smell of urine

Although changes in urine odor, color, and appearance have many causes, ranging from benign to life-threatening, sweet-smelling urine indicates a medical condition.

Below are some of the most common causes, but anyone who suddenly has sweet-smelling urine should speak to a doctor immediately to determine the exact cause.

Hyperglycemia and diabetes

Hyperglycemia (high blood glucose) is common in people with undiagnosed or poorly controlled diabetes. High glucose in the urine can impart a sweet or fruity cereal smell to the urine.

This change in the smell of urine is a sign of too high blood glucose levels.

The first sign of diabetes

For some, the fruity smell of urine is the first sign of diabetes .

The sweet urine of diabetes is often accompanied by other signs of diabetes, including:

  • Excessive thirst
  • Greater need to drink water.
  • Frequent urination

Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA)

Diabetic ketoacidosis is a very serious, even life-threatening condition in which ketones build up in the blood and make it too acidic.

In people with diabetes, the body's cells have a hard time getting the glucose they need for energy due to a lack of insulin, insulin resistance, or a lack of glucose ( hypoglycemia ), sometimes due to too much insulin from insulin injections or diabetes medications.

When cells cannot access glucose, they begin to break down fat for energy. The resulting chemicals are called ketones.

When ketones build up in the body, they can poison it. This is called CAD and it is very serious.

CAD can occur in people with type 1 and type 2 diabetes. This is more common when diabetes is not yet diagnosed or controlled.

CAD can occur slowly or quickly, even over several hours, especially with nausea or vomiting.

The first signs of CAD include:

  • Thirst
  • Very dry mouth
  • High blood sugar level
  • High levels of ketones in urine.

Symptoms that appear after the first symptoms include:

  • Nausea, vomiting, or abdominal pain
  • Constant feeling of tiredness
  • Dry or red skin
  • Fruity-scented breath
  • Difficulty breathing
  • Attention difficulties
  • Confusion

If diabetic ketoacidosis is not treated, it can lead to coma or death. This is considered a medical emergency and medical attention is needed at the first sign of CAD or impending CAD. May includes going to the nearest emergency room.

Urinary tract infection (UTI)

Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are the result of bacteria like E. coli entering the urinary tract (kidneys, ureters, bladder, and urethra).

UTIs are common, and an estimated 8-10 million people see healthcare providers each year. UTIs are more common in women due to the shorter length of the urethra and postmenopausal changes in the vagina.

UTIs can cause a bad smell in the urine, but they can also cause a sweet smell in the urine.

Other symptoms of a UTI include:

  • Frequent and urgent need to urinate.
  • Pain when urinating
  • Night urination
  • Leakage of urine
  • Blood in the urine
  • Changes in the smell of urine, especially an unpleasant odor.
  • Cloudy urine
  • Pain in the side, abdomen, lower back, penis, or pelvic area
  • Pressure in the lower pelvis
  • Pain during sex
  • Fever over 100 F and chills
  • Fatigue
  • Threw up
  • Mental changes or confusion.

Liver fetus

Liver Fetor (sometimes spelled fetor) primarily refers to bad breath caused by liver disease , but it can also affect urine.

Liver disease, also known as "breath of the dead," is caused by volatiles from liver damage that travel to the lungs.

Maple syrup urine disease

Maple syrup urine disease (also called branched-chain ketoaciduria) is an inherited disorder in which a newborn baby cannot properly metabolize amino acids.

The classic type of maple syrup urine disease is the most common and severe form that usually occurs shortly after birth. Other forms of the disease can manifest in infancy and later childhood and, although less severe, still require medical attention.

Maple syrup urine disease occurs in one in 185,000 babies worldwide.

Symptoms of maple syrup urine disease include:

  • Sweet smelling urine
  • Bad nutrition
  • Threw up
  • Lethargy (lack of energy)
  • Abnormal movements
  • Delayed development

Left untreated, maple syrup urine disease can lead to seizures, coma, and death.

An important symptom

Regardless of the cause of the sweet urine odor, this symptom alone is reason enough to seek immediate medical attention, even if it is the only symptom.


Sweet-smelling urine requires medical advice, regardless of the cause or additional symptoms. Your doctor will most likely perform a urinalysis (urinalysis) regardless of the suspected condition.

Depending on other symptoms present, your doctor may perform additional tests, such as:

  • Blood test
  • Display
  • Genetic analysis

Watch out

Sweet urine is eliminated by treating the underlying disease.


Treatment of diabetes depends on the type of diabetes, but generally includes lifestyle changes, such as healthy eating and exercise.

In most cases, people with type 1 diabetes need insulin by injection or a pump.

People with type 2 diabetes or gestational diabetes can sometimes only cope with the condition through lifestyle changes, but they may need insulin or medications to keep their diabetes under control.

Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA)

Because CAD is a medical emergency, it is usually treated in a hospital with insulin, fluids, and more.

Urinary tract infection (UTI)

UTIs are treated with antibiotics, depending on the type of bacteria that is causing the infection. While they do not cure UTIs, there are medications that can relieve symptoms during treatment.

Hepatic foeter

Treatment of foeter hepaticus includes treating the damaged liver and, if possible, the underlying causes of the liver damage.

Treatment will be individualized, but may include medications and liver-friendly lifestyle changes, such as eating a healthy diet and avoiding alcohol.

Liver damage cannot always be repaired.

Maple syrup urine disease

Maple syrup urine disease is incurable and requires lifelong treatment. This is achieved through a protein-restricted diet and carefully followed supplementation.

The metabolic crises that can result from this condition require immediate medical attention.

Avoid the sweet smell of urine

Avoiding sweet-smelling urine involves preventing the underlying cause.


Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease that cannot be prevented; most people with this condition are born with this condition.

Type 2 diabetes occurs later in life. The symptoms and side effects of type 2 diabetes can be prevented with a healthy lifestyle.

To prevent sweet smelling urine related to diabetes, you need to control your blood sugar level and control your diabetes.

Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA)

Controlling diabetes is the first step in preventing CAD. It's also important to recognize and eliminate early warning signs.

Ketone levels can be controlled and monitored at home using test strips. This is especially important when you are sick (like a cold or the flu). If your ketone levels are high, you should contact your doctor, especially if your blood sugar is also high and / or you are vomiting.

Avoid exercise if ketone and blood sugar levels are high. This may indicate that your diabetes is out of control and you should check with your doctor.

Urinary tract infection (UTI)

There are several ways to prevent infection with a UTI:

  • Drink plenty of fluids, especially water, to flush bacteria from your urinary tract.
  • Practice good hygiene, such as wiping from front to back, washing your hands, and changing your menstrual products frequently.
  • Avoid liquids and foods such as alcohol, citrus juices, caffeinated drinks, and spicy foods, which can irritate the bladder.
  • Urinate before and after sex.
  • Rinse the genital area with warm water before having sex. Don't take a shower.
  • Avoid genital deodorants.
  • Change birth control methods as needed (diaphragms and / or spermicide can increase the risk of UTIs).
  • Use a water-based lubricant during sex.
  • Wear cotton underwear and avoid tight clothing.
  • Consider adding blueberries.

People who have frequent UTIs may be given low-dose antibiotics to prevent infections.

Hepatic foeter

Taking care of the liver is the best way to prevent liver disease.

The following actions can help prevent liver disease:

  • Get regular exercise.
  • Keep a healthy weight.
  • Avoid drinking alcohol or other liver toxins.
  • Take medicines only when you need them; Take a detailed look at side effects and interactions with other medications or supplements.
  • Stay informed about vaccinations .
  • Observe safety guidelines when traveling regarding local food, drink, and health hazards.
  • Make sure proper instructions are followed during body modification procedures such as tattoos and piercings .
  • Practice safe sex to prevent STIs.

Maple syrup urine disease

Maple syrup urine disease is a recessive genetic disorder, which means that a person needs to obtain the affected gene from both parents to develop the disease.

If both parents are carriers of the disease (that is, they have one affected gene and one unaffected gene), your chances (with each pregnancy) of having a child with the condition is 25%. The chance that your child is a carrier is 50% and the chance that your child will not receive the affected gene at all is 25%.

Genetic testing can be performed on the parents before conception and / or on the zygote / embryo / fetus after conception.

Get the word of drug information

The sweet smell of urine can be caused by a variety of conditions, some of which can be serious or life-threatening.

If you notice a change in the smell of your urine, including the sudden appearance of sweet-smelling urine, seek medical attention immediately.

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