References from scientific journals

Zolpidem-Associated Consequences: An Updated Literature Review With Case Reports.

Westermeyer J, Carr TM. Westermeyer J, et al. J Nerv Ment Dis. 2020 Jan;208(1):28-32. doi: 10.1097/NMD.0000000000001074. J Nerv Ment Dis. 2020. PMID: 31834190 Review.

A post-2000 literature search reviewed prevalence of health consequences associated with zolpidem, plus two salient case reports. Common zolpidem-related harms encompassed accidents, falls, overdoses, delirium, and infections. Risks to others included assaults, vehi …
A post-2000 literature search reviewed prevalence of health consequences associated with zolpidem, plus two salient case reports. Com …

Comparison of Lemborexant With Placebo and Zolpidem Tartrate Extended Release for the Treatment of Older Adults With Insomnia Disorder: A Phase 3 Randomized Clinical Trial.

Rosenberg R, Murphy P, Zammit G, Mayleben D, Kumar D, Dhadda S, Filippov G, LoPresti A, Moline M. Rosenberg R, et al. JAMA Netw Open. 2019 Dec 2;2(12):e1918254. doi: 10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.18254. JAMA Netw Open. 2019. PMID: 31880796 Free PMC article. Clinical Trial.

OBJECTIVE: To compare treatment with the orexin receptor antagonist lemborexant with placebo and zolpidem tartrate extended release in participants with insomnia disorder. ...Six participants (4 in the zolpidem group and 2 in the lemborexant 5 mg group) reported ser …
OBJECTIVE: To compare treatment with the orexin receptor antagonist lemborexant with placebo and zolpidem tartrate extended release i …

Zolpidem for the Treatment of Neurologic Disorders: A Systematic Review.

Bomalaski MN, Claflin ES, Townsend W, Peterson MD. Bomalaski MN, et al. JAMA Neurol. 2017 Sep 1;74(9):1130-1139. doi: 10.1001/jamaneurol.2017.1133. JAMA Neurol. 2017. PMID: 28655027 Review.

IMPORTANCE: Given its selective action on the omega1 subtype of the gamma-aminobutyric acid A receptor, zolpidem tartrate presents a potential treatment mechanism for other neurologic disorders. OBJECTIVE: To synthesize studies that used zolpidem to treat neurologic …
IMPORTANCE: Given its selective action on the omega1 subtype of the gamma-aminobutyric acid A receptor, zolpidem tartrate presents a …

The effect of zolpidem on memory consolidation over a night of sleep.

Zhang J, Yetton B, Whitehurst LN, Naji M, Mednick SC. Zhang J, et al. Sleep. 2020 Nov 12;43(11):zsaa084. doi: 10.1093/sleep/zsaa084. Sleep. 2020. PMID: 32330272 Free PMC article. Clinical Trial.

The current study investigated the effect of zolpidem on nighttime sleep and overnight improvement of episodic memories. ...RESULTS: We showed greater memory improvement after a night of sleep with zolpidem, compared to placebo, replicating a prior nap study. Additi …
The current study investigated the effect of zolpidem on nighttime sleep and overnight improvement of episodic memories. ...RESULTS: …

Severe Chronic Abuse of Zolpidem in Refractory Insomnia.

Chiaro G, Castelnovo A, Bianco G, Maffei P, Manconi M. Chiaro G, et al. J Clin Sleep Med. 2018 Jul 15;14(7):1257-1259. doi: 10.5664/jcsm.7240. J Clin Sleep Med. 2018. PMID: 29991431 Free PMC article.

Zolpidem is an imidazopyridine nonbenzodiazepine hypnotic drug with a high affinity to the alpha1 subunit of the gamma amino butyric acid A receptor It is the first pharmacological option in the short-term management of sleep-onset insomnia. Initially considered a safer dr …
Zolpidem is an imidazopyridine nonbenzodiazepine hypnotic drug with a high affinity to the alpha1 subunit of the gamma amino butyric …

Sublingual and oral zolpidem for insomnia disorder: a 3-month randomized trial.

Castro LS, Otuyama LJ, Fumo-Dos-Santos C, Tufik S, Poyares D. Castro LS, et al. Braz J Psychiatry. 2020 Apr;42(2):175-184. doi: 10.1590/1516-4446-2019-0389. Epub 2019 Dec 20. Braz J Psychiatry. 2020. PMID: 31859791 Free PMC article. Clinical Trial.

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of a 5 mg sublingual dose of zolpidem, compared to a 10 mg oral dose, at bedtime and "as needed" following middle-of-the-night awakenings. METHODS: Participants were randomized into an oral group (oral zolpidem 10 mg an …
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of a 5 mg sublingual dose of zolpidem, compared to a 10 mg oral dose, at bedtime and " …

Zolpidem tartrate.

Foda NH, Ali SM. Foda NH, et al. Profiles Drug Subst Excip Relat Methodol. 2012;37:413-38. doi: 10.1016/B978-0-12-397220-0.00011-8. Epub 2012 Mar 19. Profiles Drug Subst Excip Relat Methodol. 2012. PMID: 22469325 Review. No abstract available.


Safety of lemborexant versus placebo and zolpidem: effects on auditory awakening threshold, postural stability, and cognitive performance in healthy older participants in the middle of the night and upon morning awakening.

Murphy P, Kumar D, Zammit G, Rosenberg R, Moline M. Murphy P, et al. J Clin Sleep Med. 2020 May 15;16(5):765-773. doi: 10.5664/jcsm.8294. Epub 2020 Feb 6. J Clin Sleep Med. 2020. PMID: 32022664 Free PMC article. Clinical Trial.

STUDY OBJECTIVES: Our aim was to evaluate the effect of lemborexant versus zolpidem tartrate extended release 6.25 mg (ZOL) or placebo (PBO) on postural stability, auditory awakening threshold (AAT), and cognitive performance (cognitive performance assessment battery [CPAB …
STUDY OBJECTIVES: Our aim was to evaluate the effect of lemborexant versus zolpidem tartrate extended release 6.25 mg (ZOL) or placeb …

Zolpidem overutilisation among Korean patients with insomnia.

Kim H, Park S, Kim J, Je NK. Kim H, et al. J Sleep Res. 2020 Aug;29(4):e13071. doi: 10.1111/jsr.13071. Epub 2020 May 14. J Sleep Res. 2020. PMID: 32406572 Free article.

Zolpidem overutilisation was defined as when a patient used zolpidem for longer than 30 consecutive days and prescriptions overlapped with more than 10% of total prescription periods. Demographic and clinical factors associated with the overutilisation of zolpide …
Zolpidem overutilisation was defined as when a patient used zolpidem for longer than 30 consecutive days and prescriptions ove …

Withdrawal from long-term use of zopiclone, zolpidem and temazepam may improve perceived sleep and quality of life in older adults with primary insomnia.

Lähteenmäki R, Neuvonen PJ, Puustinen J, Vahlberg T, Partinen M, Räihä I, Kivelä SL. Lähteenmäki R, et al. Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol. 2019 Mar;124(3):330-340. doi: 10.1111/bcpt.13144. Epub 2018 Dec 3. Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol. 2019. PMID: 30295409 Free article. Clinical Trial.

We studied perceived sleep and quality of life in 92 older (age 55-91 years) outpatients with primary insomnia before and after withdrawal from long-term use of zopiclone, zolpidem or temazepam (BZDA). BZDA was withdrawn during 1 month, during which the participants receiv …
We studied perceived sleep and quality of life in 92 older (age 55-91 years) outpatients with primary insomnia before and after withdrawal f …